I am an Eurasian Dutch citizen, commonly referred to in The Netherlands as an Indo. An Eurasian is a person of mixed European and Asian blood. As such I will refer in this book to persons of mixed blood as an Eurasian Dutch born in the former Dutch East Indies.
In my lifetime I have been through a great deal.
Therefore I deemed it necessary to put part of my life on paper. The aim of this book is to provide information to my family and other persons who are interested in this subject.
During our lifetime decisions were made by people from which the results could be beneficial or detrimental. We and our next generations may learn something from the contents of this book.
Therefore my recommendation to read this book.

I hope you enjoy reading it.

Rob Dias





The origin of the Eurasian Dutch culture came about because of a mixture of Dutch and the habits and customs of the indigenous people of the Dutch East Indies. This is not strange because the fathers of the Eurasian Dutch were predominantly Dutch and a sprinkling of other European nationalities, while the mothers were indigenous.
The raising of the Eurasian children was similar to that of Dutch children. The lady of the house hired an indigenous nanny and gave her the responsibility to raise the children. This resulted in a combination of Dutch and indigenous habits and customs. They were taught the local indigenous language, the use of local medicinal herbs, and the preparation of local indigenous meals. They also learned the indolence and the so-called "Laissez fair" attitude.
The Dutch were on the top of the social system picking order, who in the following centuries succeeded by their descendants who had been educated in The Netherlands. The Dutch primary- and secondary schools and universities in the Dutch East Indies, were considered to be of a lower calibre and producing graduates whose education was not equivalent to the level of education in The Netherlands. This was abundantly clear when the Eurasian Dutch, after the transfer of power by the Dutch to the new Indonesian government, were forcibly repatriated to The Netherlands. In The Netherlands all the diplomas obtained in the former Dutch East Indies were not recognized. Many Eurasian Dutch who had completed their secondary and/or university education became suddenly from one day to the other unskilled laborers. In contrast, the Dutch who came from the former Dutch East Indies were after additional schooling and training able to obtain Dutch diplomas and obtained good employment.

The Dutch journalist Th. R. Landouw was the first to introduce the term “INDO” in 1916. As already mentioned this indicates people with mixed European and indigenous Dutch East Indies blood, whose roots lay in the former Dutch East Indies.


Sukarno founded the National Party Indonesia in 1927. His political aspirations for independence earned him many years of exile and stays in prison. Later Republican leaders such as Dr. Hatta, Sultan Sjahrir and the journalist Salim were years incarcerated in Upper Digoel on Dutch New Guinea.
Sukarno was already in his youth obsessed by the books of the writer Eduard Douwes Dekker (Multatuli). It was partly due to the radical political ideas and criticism of this writer which inspired him to claim independence for the Dutch East Indies.
Sukarno also found time to obtain his degree of engineering and architecture at the University of Bandoeng on Java.


On March 8, 1942, three months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on Battle ship row and the airports of the Americans in Hawaii, the Japanese bombed various places on southern Java including the port of Tjilatjap. There were many dead and injured victims. The authorities of the Dutch East Indies capitulated. Dutch and indigenous KNIL soldiers were made prisoners of war and interned in prisoner of war camps in the Dutch East Indies, Singapore and Thailand (formerly Siam).
During the crossings many ships were sunk by both Japanese and allied warships. There were many victims. The British submarines "Trident" and "Tradwind" torpedoed and sank the prisoner of war transport ship, the' Yunjo Maru´ and a ship sailing under the flag of the Red Cross , the " Waerwijck ".  About 5,000 of the 7,000 prisoners of war and forced laborers drowned.  Many other transport ships were shot at. (F. Aarts). By comparison, in the terrorist attack on the "Twin Towers" on 11 September 2001 in New York, 3,000 people died.
In 1941 many Dutch and Eurasian Dutch persons with German surnames such as Stralendorff, Prehn, Kuhn, Neijendorff, etc.  were arrested and jailed by the Dutch colonial authorities in the belief that they might collaborate with the Japanese.
However, strange as it may seem, they were liberated by the Japanese. The imprisonment of these persons by the Dutch colonial authorities was unfounded.  Between March 1942 and 1943 they, as well as the other Dutch and Eurasian Dutch, were asked by the Japanese general Yamamoto to side with the Japanese against the allies. This they refused.

Early in 1942 the Dutch East Indies declared war on Japan on orders from the Dutch government in exile in England. After the war there was disagreement between the Dutch government and the government of the Dutch East Indies about who was responsible for the declaration of war against Japan and the consequences. The Dutch East Indies had been autonomous since 1920. In a court case the presiding judge ruled in favor of the Dutch East Indies and held the Dutch government responsible for the declaration of war against Japan.

After the surrender of the Dutch East Indies to Japan a wave of arrests followed of Dutch Europeans and Eurasian Dutch persons. These prisoners were first interrogated by the Japanese Kempetai (a military police unit equivalent to the German Gestapo). Depending on the outcome of the interrogation a person could be detained for a shorter or longer period of time and sometimes interned in a camp until after the war. Dutch and Eurasian Dutch, who were employed in vital organizations like the postal, telegraph and telephone services, electrical power stations, the hospitals and railways, etc., were forced to return to their place of work by threatening them with the death of their family members. They were essential to the Japanese to keep these vital services running. (W. Dias).
These men organized an underground resistance movement. They sabotaged the electrical power stations, the telephone system, the railways and other vital installations. In addition, they shared their scarce supply of food with the prisoners in the Japanese internment camps. Because of this, many prisoners have survived the Japanese interment camps. I myself was fired upon several times when I smuggled, on instructions of my father, mail, food and medicine to the internment camp of the catholic sisters and brothers school on the Grote Postweg in Poerwokerto. On one occasion I was hit in my chest. The bullet fragments were removed by a nurse (manti) without anesthetic.
About the underground resistance movements in Poerworkerto, Tjilatjap and Banjoemas in south Java is due to the isolation of the area little or nothing known. This is a pity.
The Japanese have from the beginning of their occupation until the middle of 1943 attempted to win the Eurasian Dutch over to their side. The Eurasian Dutch refused en mass to proclaim their loyalty to and cooperate with the Japanese. Thereafter the Japanese undertook stringent measures against the Eurasian Dutch and Europeans who were not yet interned.
Many older men, women and children were put into internment camps. Due to lack of capacity and logistical problems the Japanese could not intern all Eurasian Dutch. Around a thousand Eurasian Dutch were interned in the Lowok Waru prison in Malang. A large number of the prisoners were employees of the Dutch East Indies Railways on Java. This included Th. A. CH. Van den Berg, Th. Van Kampen, Beersak, Felix, Brouwer) and a number of Eurasian Dutch youngsters.
They were suspected of undermining activities against the Japanese occupation forces. Many of these were killed or died because of the poor living conditions in the prison and mistreatment by the Japanese.
Many younger prisoners were later murdered in   Dampit prison. More than 50 years later a monument was erected, at the initiative and expense of the Eurasian Dutch from all over the world, at Bronbeek near Arnhem in memory of what is now known as the "Dampit affair".
The survivors and relatives have never received compensation from the WUV compensation law because the prison is not on the Dutch official list of prisons and internment camps. This list has, as far as we know, never been revised.
There were several other Eurasian Dutch men, women and children interned in other prisons. This included the prison "Tjipinang" in Batavia and the prison located in the Werfstraat in Soerabaya. Again the survivors were not compensated because the two prisons mentioned above were also not on the official list.
The Eurasian Dutch who were not interned faced a very uncertain future. They were instantly recognizable by both the Japanese and the Indonesians because of their color, lifestyle, language, etc. They were more or less classified as outlaws and in some cases mercilessly beaten and murdered.
Moreover, they were deprived of food, medical aid and medicine. Many of them suffered from various tropical diseases, and were also suffering from undernourishment which resulted in open sores on the body, but especially on the legs, known in Dutch as ´hongeroedeem´.
Years later, because of the pressure put on the Dutch government by the Eurasian Dutch community, the persons who were not interned (in Dutch the buitenkampers) received some compensation called ´The Gesture´, as to be handled somewhat equally by the Dutch government with the persons who were interned (in Dutch the kampers).

Before the war with Japan, the Dutch and the Eurasian Dutch were considered more or less to belong to the same society. This society consisted of approximately 360,000 persons. Approximately 280,000 were Eurasian Dutch and 80,000 were Dutch from The Netherlands. (Dr. L. de Jong).
From the Eurasian Dutch serving in the armed forces 37,000 were made prisoners of war. Between 9,000 and 10,000 POWs died in various POW camps in the Dutch East Indies, in Japan and in Thailand (the former Siam). (Waterford and Dr. L. de Jong) Of the approximately 42,000 Royal Dutch East Indian Army servicemen 6,000 were killed in action.
Approximately 110,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch men, women and children were interned in Japanese civilian internment camps. As already mentioned, because of Japanese capacity and logistical problems the remainder, some 220,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch had to live and survive outside the civil internment camps. These were mostly old men, women and children.

An estimated 13,000 to 14,000 persons died in the internment camps. (D. van Fields).
It is estimated that from the persons who were not interned about 25,000 died due to torture, murder, tropical diseases (malaria dysentery, hongeroedeem, etc,) because of the lack of food, the lack of medicine and medical care.
In total around 50,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch persons died in the POW and internment camps during the Japanese occupation. It is a certainty that during the period of the Japanese occupation more Dutch and Eurasian Dutch persons died than in all of the German and Italian camps together, the Jewish victims not included.


The Japanese cruelly executed civilians and prisoners of war in public squares, which were located in the centre of the town or city (in Indonesian, aloen aloen), or in the square in front of the Kempetai building. Persons were forced to look onto these executions. The hand of a thief with whom he committed the theft was chopped off in public. Persons were also forced to watch this. Failure to great a Japanese guard was punished by a beating with their rifle butt, kicking, or having to look at the sun for a half or a whole day. The proper way to greet a guard was done in the following manner:
Stop in front of the guard and turn with your body towards him and make a deep bow in his direction.
Sometimes people were hanged on their arms or legs on a tree branch for several hours.
These methods were applied during the interrogation by the Kempetai. The Kempetai used even more brutal methods to make people talk.
In order to force a person to talk, he or she had to lie, clad only in their underwear, on his or her back on a wooden table and then their arms and legs were tied down. The Japanese then placed a transparent glass upside down on the belly button. They put a cricket of the orong-orong species inside the glass. This type of cricket lives underground and cannot stand daylight. Because of his abhorrence to daylight the cricket begins to dig into the belly button. As the cricket cannot escape he continues to dig into the belly button, changing the flesh into a mass of blood.
Prisoners, who during the interrogation did not cooperate, were also tied down on such a table. A garden hose was stuffed in their mouth and the faucet to which the hose was attached was turned on. The belly of the prisoner filled with water until it looked like a balloon. Then a Japanese soldier jumped with his boots on the water-filled belly. Because of the pressure the intestines, the eyes, the tongue and other organs were forcibly extracted from the body. (observed by the author himself).
Children of about 8 or 9 year old, including the author, were used as guinea pigs. Once a month they had to drink diluted hydrochloric acid, while the inside of their mouth and their teeth were smeared with an iodine tincture. This form of research was performed on each group of youngsters for at least a year. Why these tests were performed will always remain a mystery. It is presumed that it was research about the functioning of the digestive system in times that there was little or no food available.
These children had in later years problems with their dentures because the enamel gradually disappeared and the teeth became sensitive to inflammations. The diluted hydrochloric acid fluids affected the mucus membrane of the esophagus, and became perforated when the youngsters became adults destroying the connection between the esophagus and the stomach. They had to swallow gastric acid inhibitors for the rest of their lives. Later on I underwent an extensive examination at the Free University in Amsterdam. The link between the forcibly administered diluted hydrochloric acid and the iodine tincture and the mucus membrane perforation could not be medically proven or determined. They told me to go to a speech therapist.

When crimes were committed against the Japanese and the offender was not known, persons were chosen at random from outside and inside the camps and taken hostage. They were beaten and sometimes murdered.
The Japanese had many other methods of punishment which I better not describe. These methods, which in my eyes were a form of criminal punishment, took place in front of the Kempetai building on the Grote Postweg in Poerwokerto on Java. One may assume that these methods of punishment were used by the Japanese everywhere in the Dutch East Indies against those persons who were interned and those who were not. The Japanese tried by these public executions to keep the population subdued.
The Japanese methods of mistreatment of persons through hitting or kicking them with or without weapons and wounding or murdering them were copied after the war from the Japanese by Indonesian extremists. In the Bersiap period to induce fear by the Eurasian Dutch and European citizens. Bersiap means ready for action. It was coined so by the Indonesian extremists. If there was retaliation by the Eurasian Dutch or Europeans for the aggression committed by the Indonesian extremists, a member of the family was sometimes kidnapped by the extremists and beheaded. The severed head was then stuck on the pointed end of a bamboo stake (in Indonesian a roentjing) and then placed at the entrance of the house of the family.

Occasionally, Dutch soldiers taken prisoner or kidnapped met the same fate. Revengeful Dutch troops burned down Indonesian villages and shot at the villagers. During the Japanese occupation and after the war during the Bersiap period, interned Eurasian Dutch had to muster at roll call twice a day. For the rest of the time they had to perform manual work duties. There was often no food. Medical aid and medicine was not available. They slept on a wooden bed or on the floor without any protection against the many malaria mosquitos.
Those who became sick were left to their fate.  Prisoners helped the severely ill by letting them drink blood from their own veins. Maggots were scooped out of cesspools. The maggots were sieved and washed, and then fed to the sick because it was believed that the maggots contained al lot of protein.
The dead were placed in two jute bags. Because permission to bury the dead was granted often much too late, the whole surrounding area stank of decomposed flesh. These were very inhumane conditions.
It goes without saying that many non interned and interned persons died or were traumatized for the rest of their life. (The author)


The atomic bombs which were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to the capitulation of Japan.
Japan has never specifically admitted their capitulation.

On August 14, 1945 at 12.00 hours there was a radio broadcast from the emperor of Japan  with the following message:

• that after given serious thought about the situation in the Japanese empire he had decided to find a solution by taking extraordinary measures;
• Therefore the Japanese government will, for the Japanese empire, accept the conditions set by of  the governments of the U.S., Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union;
• If the fighting continued, it would only lead to the total destruction of the human race as we know it;
• All Japanese had to bear the unbearable and tolerate the intolerable to pave the way for a lasting peace for all future generations.

With this declaration in which the words capitulation, surrender or defeat were avoided in a convenient way, the emperor in fact stated that Japan had saved the world from further destruction and suffering. The radio broadcast by the emperor ended the Second World War in Asia.
Every Japanese soldier who heard the statement by the emperor cried and bowed in the direction of the emperor.
In the Dutch East Indies a small group of Japanese soldiers who did not agree with the emperor’s statement showed their dissatisfaction through the use of violence.
Some Japanese officers committed, in recognition of their defeat, suicide by the “Hara-kiri" ritual. This happened occasionally in public.
The signing of the "Instrument of Surrender" took place on 2 September 1945 in Tokyo Bay aboard the U.S. battleship the Missouri.
The Dutch delegate was the Lord of the fleet in the Dutch East Indies, Admiral Conrad EL Helfrich. (Klaessen)
All assets of Dutch, Eurasian Dutch and European inhabitants had been stolen by the Japanese occupation forces. In the Bersiap period, that little that was left was stolen by the Indonesian extremists (in Indonesian, gerampokt).
After the Japanese surrender, there was anarchy in the Dutch East Indies. The Commander in chief of the allied forces in the pacific, the U.S. General MacArthur, made the former Japanese soldiers  responsible for the safety of the  Dutch , Eurasian Dutch and Europeans who were still in the former Japanese internment camps. At the same time he transferred the military command of the Dutch East Indies over to the British under the command of the supreme commander for South East Asia, Admiral Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten installed a high ranking British officer named Cristinson to carry out his orders for maintaining the safety and security of the population in the Dutch East Indies. In reality, the authority of this officer and his staff was limited to small areas on the island of Java, such as Bandoeng, Semarang, Batavia and Surabaya, as well as some cities on Sumatra, such as Padang, Medan and Deli.
The British forces which were sent to the Dutch East Indies, which included Nepalese Ghurkas and Indian Sikhs, tried to guarantee the safety of the Dutch, Eurasian Dutch and other Europeans. During the frequent firefights between the British and the Indonesian extremists many Eurasian Dutch, including those in areas under British protection came under fire and had to fear for their lives. The British forces were especially involved in heavy combat with the Indonesian extremists in the city of Surabaya, which resulted that large parts of the city were burned to ashes. One of the casualties was a British general. The British high command reinforced the existing forces with units that were stationed in India. They were now able to extract a heavy toll of the heavily armed Indonesian extremists, but eventually took up defensive positions on the edges of the larger cities, such as Batavia, Surabaya, Bandoeng and Semarang, until they left the Dutch East Indies. The Royal Dutch Indies Army forces were not allowed to enter and take up positions on Java. They had to limit themselves to Celebes, also known as Makassar, the Sunda islands and areas around the Moluccas islands. The volunteers of the Royal Dutch Army which came from The Netherlands were ordered by the temporary British authorities to remain in Malacca and Singapore until the end of 1946 and to amuse themselves.
In and around Makassar lieutenant Westerling of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and the Special Forces Unit cleared the area, with permission of the Australian high command, of Indonesian extremists. Extremists who were captured, were interrogated and afterwards executed.
Due to the precarious situation caused by the frequent attacks of Indonesian freedom fighters the British army had no option but to evacuate many women and children of Dutch, Eurasian Dutch and European descent temporarily to Singapore and Thailand. A large number of these went immediately to the Netherlands. During the period between 1945 and 1946 an estimated 60,000 persons went from the Dutch East Indies, Singapore and Thailand to the Netherlands.

During this period of anarchy Soekarno saw the coast clear to proclaim the Republic of Indonesia. At the time of the proclamation he had to his disposal a militia of 80,000 men. The militia consisted mainly of ex-hai ho's or sukarelas. These were Indonesian youngsters that were trained by the Japanese during the occupation using wooden rifles. They were later partially armed by the Japanese with weapons captured by the Japanese from the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and the Dutch East Indies police force.
At the end of 1946 the British forces withdrew from the Dutch East Indies. The Royal Dutch East Indies Army and the Royal Dutch Army  were now able to regain control over the areas where Indonesian extremists or freedom fighters had taken control during the vacuum period that had existed. During these military operations, just like in any theatre of war, the Indonesian extremists were treated harshly which resulted in many casualties.
After the arrival of the Dutch forces on the islands of Java and Sumatra all the interned Dutch and European nationals were freed, except in the previous mentioned cities, and mostly were transported to the larger cities in trains with the windows covered up.

After the Japanese surrender the Dutch, Eurasian Dutch and other Europeans, who during the Japanese occupation lived outside the Japanese internment camps under deplorable circumstances, were immediately interned in about 400 Indonesian camps and prisons. This was during the Bersiap period, and affected more than 150,000 persons. Due to massacres in these camps and prisons approximately 6,000 to 7,000 persons lost their lives between August 1945 and 1947. The last victims fell during the 2nd half of 1949, when a cease fire was signed between The Netherlands and Indonesia. When the sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies was turned over to the Indonesians.
In the Bersiap period which lasted from 1945 to 1947 the conditions under which the Dutch population lived was just as bad as during the Japanese occupation. There was a shortage of everything.

Regularly Indonesians  extremist units marched, armed with machetes and bamboo-roentjings, through streets where the Dutch and other Europeans  still lived and shouted slogans like: "hantjoerkanlah moesoeh kita, itoelah Blanda than America", which means destroy our enemy, it is the Dutch and the Americans. This made an everlasting negative impression on the Dutch, Eurasian Dutch and other Europeans.

The Japanese and Indonesian camps were surrounded by a barbed wire fence of about 3 meters in height and covered with a wall constructed of bamboo (gedèk). Therefore the interned persons were unable to see what was happening outside the camps. Armed Indonesian extremists guarded the camps and did not hesitate to use the weapons at their disposal.

The above mentioned shows that both the interned persons (kampers) and the persons that were not interned (buitenkampers) suffered equally at the hands of the Japanese and later at the hands of the Indonesian extremist freedom fighters. (Begemann KJBB and the author).
The WUV and the WUBO are compensation laws to compensate the loss of income during the Second World War and the period thereafter until 1949. Both laws also are compensation laws for bodily injury which has led to partial or complete disablement and for mental damage caused by the Japanese occupation forces and the Indonesian extremists.
The difference is that the WUV is a compensation law for those persons who were interned during the Japanese occupation and the WUBO for those that were interned by the Indonesians after the Second World War until 1949.
The discriminatory decisions made by civil servants between the applications of the WUV and the WUBO have never been understood by many Eurasian Dutch who suffered during the above mentioned period. Under the WUV compensation law 90 percent of the applications were approved while under the WUBO compensation law the approval rate was only around 10 percent.

The Dutch government was at this time probably more interested in the financial situation of The Netherlands itself, instead of owing up to the moral obligations to their Dutch citizens in the Dutch East Indies.


In late 1945 the first Dutch troops arrived from Thailand (Gajah Merah), Singapore and from The Netherlands a number of volunteers (OVW-ers) in the Dutch East Indies to fight together with units of Royal Dutch East Indies Army (Andjing Nica) to liberate the remainder of the Dutch East Indies. In early 1947 all areas (which included the remaining camps guarded by the Indonesians extremists, such as the male internment camp at Bodjong and the women and children camp at Klampok near Perwokerto) were liberated and again under Dutch East Indies control.
Ever since 1918 the Dutch government had promised the people of the Dutch East Indies that in the future discussions could take place about the possibility of the country becoming independent. This promise was repeated by Queen Wilhelmina in a speech which she held in December 1942. According to the Atlantic Charter set up in the same year, which was signed by the Dutch government in exile, every country had the right to become independent if it so wished. The Indonesian leaders of the independence movement, Sukarno, Shahrir and Hatta, who were educated in universities in The Netherlands, were well aware of the articles of the Atlantic Charter. The Dutch government recognized Indonesia in 1946 as a sovereign country within the Dutch realm, creating of Indonesia a dominion. The ceremony took place in the mountain village of Lingardjati on west Java. This declaration or agreement was not lived up to by both parties. After a second round of negotiations on board a U.S. warship in the harbor of Cheribon in which the situation between both parties did not improve gave
general Spoor in 1947 the go-ahead for the first military operation on Java, Sulawesi and other areas. In 1948 a second military operation followed. The politicians in The Netherlands were still convinced that the Dutch East Indies could remain a colony of The Netherlands.
There was heavy fighting between the unit of captain Westerling, Royal Dutch East Indies Army units, regular Dutch military units and the Indonesian extremists units in Makassar, Jogja, Solo, Bandoeng (Braga), and other places.  An armistice was agreed upon three times and duly signed by both parties during the period from 1945 until the transfer of sovereignty to the new Indonesian government in late 1949.
The largest units of the Indonesian army consisted of Darul Islam fighters. A small proportion of these DI units split itself into three smaller units. They felt themselves not bound by the signed agreements and kept on fighting until the independence of Indonesia in 1949. By the use of "hit and run" tactics they held the Dutch colonial government and the Royal Dutch East Indies Army units under severe pressure. Many Eurasian Dutch citizens were regularly fired upon and had to fear for their lives. This took place mostly in and around Batavia and preferably during the nightly hours in areas such as Petodjo, Tanah Abang, Master Cornelis, Pasar Ikan and on the road to the port of Tandjung Priok.
The Dutch ambassador in the United States, van Kleffens, named the military operations, short term military policing operations, in order to  keep criticism from other countries to a minimum.

Many of the crimes committed by the Japanese and the Indonesian extremists were documented and stored in different Dutch archives. These archives are not available to applicants for compensation under the WUV and WUBO laws. It is curious that the documents in the archives were and are well made available to university graduates. According to the various archives they could not be consulted on a short notice due to a lack of manpower and time. It was discovered, after an investigation, that a Dutch government sponsored pension plan and pension payout organization (the PUR) had signed an agreement with the various archives in which the PUR applications had priority. Requests for information by individuals had a waiting period of six months or longer. Many applicants who would have been able to receive compensation from the WUV and the WUBO threw in the towel and did not apply.

In 1949/1950 the transition of sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to Indonesia was effectuated. The Dutch Military Mission was given the responsibility for the safety of the remaining Dutch and Eurasian Dutch civilians and to ensure that the transition would go smoothly. What remained of the former Dutch government colonial office led this operation.


Approximately 25,000 Eurasian Dutch and Dutch persons departed, after the transition, to The Netherlands or Dutch New Guinea.
A few thousand young men, mostly Eurasian Dutch, were offered a contract in Dutch New Guinea by the Department of Economical and Technical Assistance (DETA) for one guilder fifty per day (one pop fifty). They were housed in barracks on the Oranjelaan in Hollandia, which offered a minimum of privacy. The benevolent organization St. Vincent, which operated In Manokwari, was offering contracts of half a guilder per person per day. The persons who accepted this contract were employed in various activities and have contributed to the fact that later immigrants had a reasonable "homecoming".
During this period, the Eurasian Dutch who wanted to go to The Netherlands did not receive any co-operation from the Dutch embassy. The embassy in the former Dutch East Indies advised the Eurasian Dutch to opt for the Indonesian nationality (the Warga Nagera Indonesian citizenship) so they would be able to remain in Indonesia and find employment. Due to this propaganda, which was accompanied by various pledges by the embassy, a relatively unknown small number of Eurasian Dutch indeed opted for Indonesian citizenship.

The former Dutch colonial government had in the beginning of 1949 many essential goods, materials and public services, such as the Postal, Telegraph and Telephone services,  transported by the Shipping Line of the former Dutch East Indies, the KPM and by Second World War Landing  Craft Tanks (LTC) of the Dutch navy to Dutch New Guinea. The responsibility for the transportation of these goods, materials and services was given to the department managers.
After the transition, the Indonesian government confiscated the ships of the KPM. Dutch naval forces entered the ships in Indonesian territorial waters and recaptured the ships.

Because the persons who ordered of the clandestine shipments have always denied this and the archives which contained written information about the shipments disappeared, many Eurasian Dutch civil servants came into severe difficulties. This happened before, during and after the transition. Entire families had to flee regularly and change accommodation regularly in order not to be arrested by the Indonesian extremists.
This also happened to our family. My father was the shipment manager of the Postal, Telegraph and Telephone services at the port of Tandjoeng Priok in Batavia.
He was able to escape shortly after the transition with the assistance of the Dutch embassy on board the ship “The Riebeek” to Sorong on Dutch New Guinea. After nearly a year of fleeing and wandering our family was, also with the help of the Dutch embassy in Batavia, able to escape to Dutch New Guinea by hiding in the sick bay of the KPM ship 'Van Riemsdijk ". We were re-united with our father in Merauke on south Dutch New Guinea and were put in an army tent by the Dutch authorities. We lacked electricity and clean water. Like many other families we were left to keep ourselves alive without support from the authorities.  In those days there were no government services available to assist           people. Our family built a house of indigenous materials and supported ourselves with agriculture, hunting and fishing.
About three years later my father found employment at the Gouvernements hospital in Merauke and obtained a small fixed income.
In 1953 my father received a letter from the Dutch governmental offices of southern Dutch New Guinea that he and his family had to relinquish their passports and that they had been stripped of their Dutch nationality. This happened to several persons and families without a Dutch surname. The agony of this is that our family and thus also our forefathers had the Dutch nationality in the Dutch East Indies for two centuries.
After relinquishing their Dutch passports, those who were eligible were issued a passport stating that the person was stateless. It was fortunate that it stated in this passport that the person was a born as a Dutch national. At a later date (it must have been around mid-1953) a Dutch under minister (I do not remember his name but I believe he was a liberal) who was visiting Dutch New Guinea was informed about this, went back to The Netherlands and corrected this wrongdoing and our family regained their Dutch nationality and the accrued pension rights of my father.
Many persons and families were traumatized in this troublesome period due to the indifference and bureaucracy of the authorities of Dutch New Guinea and many people lost their peace of mind forever.  Other Eurasian Dutch only regained their Dutch nationality after signing a document opting for the Dutch nationality. 
Dutch New Guinea was at that time a backward country, which was known for the imprisonment dangerous criminals, called the chained bears, because of the chains they wore. (In Dutch, kettingberen). 
The indigenous population living in the area named "Vogelkop" (in English “Birds head”) and in the southern part of Dutch New Guinea still walked around naked and had little or no education. During this period the catholic missionaries and other religious missionary organizations had a strong influence on the administration,  the schools, etc.

Later, the son of the in 1939 deceased oil baron  John D. Rockefeller been killed by headhunters in the village of Otjenèp. Another reading of the disappearance of John D. Rockefeller Jr. was that he had been devoured by crocodiles in the area of the Eilandenrivier. (Island River) The remains of John D. Rockefeller Jr. were never found.

Shortly after the disappearance and probable death of John D. Rockefeller Jr. police patrols commanded  by a police commander of south Dutch New Guinea were confronted by approximately 10,000 Asmat headhunters armed with bows and arrows when they tried to enter the village of Otjenep and were forced to retreat. The armed worriers greeted the police force with thousands of arrows. Due to this there was never a proper investigation implemented into the actual cause of death of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and the whereabouts of his remains. (The author)


The Pelita Foundation was and is one of the most important organizations in The Netherlands which is concerned with the destiny of the Dutch and the Eurasian Dutch repatriates and war victims. Mrs. Eckthausen-Tetzner was in charge of the foundation after it was founded. The foundation ensured that large amounts of money were transferred from the Dutch East Indies to the Netherlands for financial support of the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch repatriates.
At the request of the foundation in January 1947 Lieutenant Governor General H.J. Mook gave permission to transfer an amount off 12,000,000, - NNG to the Netherlands.
This amount came from the profits of Dutch private companies in the Dutch East Indies. Besides financial aid for the repatriates, part of the money was used to start up a building corporation. Although this was against the wishes of the Dutch government, the profits earned by the corporation could be used to bolster the finances of the foundation.

Queen Wilhelmina, who was the patroness of the foundation, in a letter dated 21 November 1945, was full of praise of work accomplished by the foundation. She also praised the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch for their courage and steadfastness during the period 1942-1945.

Later on the foundation, registered by the Chamber of Commerce under registration number 41149303, received subsidies from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. One part of the foundation was in charge of preparing reports for applicants for social recognition by the IPH, WUV, WUBO, etc. These are compensation laws for bodily and mental harm received during the period 1942-1949.

The foundation manages also three other foundations:

1. The Netherlands Eurasian Dutch Foundation. registered by the Chamber of Commerce under registration number KVK 2718158.

2. The Netherlands Eurasian Foundation for collecting funds, registered by the Chamber of Commerce under registration number KVK 2718160.

3. The Eurasian Dutch Pelita Foundation Group, registered by the Chamber of Commerce under registration number KVK 2718162.

According to the foundation, they perform a social function. It also seems that the foundation possesses approximately 60,000 files which contain social reports of applicants who applied under the various compensation laws such as the WUV and the WUBO, etc. for compensation as victims of the Japanese occupation internment camps and the Indonesian internment camps
These 60,000 files appeared suddenly in the archives of a new organization, named the Eurasian Dutch Platform (In Dutch, Indisch Platform or IP). This organization is not registered with the Chamber of Commerce. This was done without the knowledge of the applicants. The applicants were now counted as members of the Eurasian Dutch Platform giving this organization a membership majority over other organizations. (H. Deetman).
Another reading is that 50,000 members of the JES were added onto the 36,000 members of the 18 IP affiliated organizations, so the IP accounts could show an increase of 50,000 paying members. The JES is an organization that aids women of all ages who were raped by the Japanese. However it may be the sudden increase of IP membership is doubted by many Eurasian Dutch from all over the world. Daily e-mail messages to the e-mail address confirm these doubts.
The aim of the Pelita Foundation and the IP are probably the same. Curiously the Eurasian Dutch Remembrance House (IHC) was built from the plans of both organizations. The IHC deployed various activities. The Eurasian Dutch House, not to be confused with the IHC, and the collection of ten guilders at the Pasar Malam Besar, which is an Indonesian market, are examples of these activities. The election of the board members of the IHC is one of the most undemocratic elections in The Netherlands. The board was composed by co-option (choosing new board members by the existing board members). Problems arose very soon about the Eurasian Dutch House. The minister of Health, Mrs. Borst, gave in 1999, 5.3 million guilders to set up the Eurasian Dutch House.

The board of the IHC consisted of:
R. Boekholt (Chairman of the IP and the IHC. One can speak here of a conflict of interests);
J. Weede (fund-raiser and PR man);
Edy Series (project manager);
R. Meyer (treasurer);
L. de Coninck (secretary) and
L. van der Linden.
A difference of opinion soon caused a split within the board. The treasurer had difficulties with certain expenses. He accused the board of financial mismanagement and political nepotism and resigned.

Then it leaked out that the chairman had given the contract for the construction or renovation of the Eurasian Dutch House to his brother Max Boekholt.
The partner of Edy Series was paid to make a documentary in Indonesia.
The husband of L. van der Linden produced a CD-ROM for the IHC.
Is this not nepotism?
In addition to the government subsidy of approximately 500,000 guilders a year, the ten guilder fund raising action at the annual Pasar Malam Besar yielded another 40,000 guilders. In Indonesian Pasar Malam Besar means market.

Because of the disagreement within the board of the IHC, the board resigned. The government subsidy was stopped.

No less than five consultancy firms have audited the books of the IHC in order to formulate an advisory report. Their report stated in official language that there was no indication of fraudulent handling by the board, but that the board did creative accounting by moving expenses and outgoing payments from one account to another. In other words the bookkeeping was confusing and did not conform to the standards of accountancy.
The payment of a scale model of the IHC, which cost 15,000 guilders, was paid for from funds from the personnel department. The scale model was used only once.
It remained a mystery of the whereabouts of 10,000,000 guilders of subsidized money. This concerns taxpayer’s money.
The clique of the IHC, the Pelita Foundation and some consultants were responsible for this disastrous happening of events. The credo was, I’ll scratch your back and you’ll scratch mine, and we wash our hands like Pontius Pilate did.
All this happened "under the watchful eye" of the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports.
A new board was appointed under the chairmanship of Mr. Venema. Mr. Venema and the other new board members were acquaintances or sometimes colleagues from each other. In a statement to the board he told the members that there could be no personal or business involvement with the IHC.
As it stands now, until the end of 2004 everything has been running smoothly. There are also in various Dutch cities collective housing projects, for Eurasian Dutch over the age of 55. But the IHC still has problems. In 2007 the IHC was again on the point of declaring of bankruptcy.


The first payment of overdue outstanding wages from the period 1942-1945 was made in 1982, (the UIG Law). It amounted to 7,500 guilders for those who were entitled to it. Later another rehabilitation payment followed, which included the compensation for all damages, to a maximum of 1,000 guilders. 
Many of the Eurasian Dutch who emigrated directly from the former Dutch East Indies to other countries than The Netherlands and were entitled to receive the payment of overdue outstanding wages and the compensation have never received them.

Ex prisoners of war who were still alive and registered as POWs received according to the Treaty of San Francisco signed on September 8, 1951 an amount of 264 guilders per person.
Due to the "forgetfulness" of the Dutch negotiator, Baron van Ittersum, no arrangements were made during the negotiations for Dutch and Eurasian Dutch civilian victims or for civilians who were in Japanese internment camps.
Under pressure from the government of The Netherlands a bilateral agreement was signed later with Japan. This Yoshida-Stikker protocol of 1956 ensured that all Dutch and Eurasian Dutch who were in the Japanese internment camps received a compensation of 415 guilders per person.

Nothing was arranged for the more than 100,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch citizens who suffered under the Japanese occupation and lost all their belongings.

The United Kingdom considered the Burma Railroad as a spoil of war. This railroad was sold to the Burmese government for approximately 1,250,000.  Pounds Sterling (Goeje). The governments of Burma, Malaysia and the Netherlands received substantial sums of money for compensation for the stolen railroad materials that the Japanese stole in the first two countries and in the Dutch East Indies. Where the payments made to the Dutch government have gone to remains a mystery.

The remaining amount of about 350,000 Pounds Sterling was eventually paid out to the countries whose servicemen were as POWs forced by the Japanese to work on the Burma Railroad. The

Dutch government received approximately 100,000 Pounds Sterling. From 1954 onwards each person that was eligible received the amount of 61 guilders and 73 cents.

The Dutch government never negotiated with Japan for compensation for the civilian victims, even though were responsible. The Dutch government also neglected to negotiate for compensation for civilian victims with the Republic of Indonesia Serikat (RIS) and later with the Republic of Indonesia (RI). The Dutch State has failed adequately the interests of its citizens in India to represent.


In 1998 the van Galen committee started an investigation into the whereabouts of the assets of Dutch banks and insurance companies in the former Dutch East Indies. Because the committee assumed that only the upper class, which is the Dutch population, possessed assets, the committee came to the premature conclusion that the loss of banking and insurance assets of the Eurasian Dutch community was negligible. The committee deemed it therefore not necessary to asses the lost assets of the Eurasian Dutch community.
Research done by Dr. Keppy, Dr. Meijer and Mr. Zorab, which was finished in 2005 and 2006, proved the contrary.
After the capitulation of the Dutch East Indies to Japan and after the capitulation of Japan, Dutch and Eurasian Dutch civilians were interned. The first time by the Japanese and the second time by the Indonesian extremists. All Dutch and Indian Dutch had they leave their belongings behind for several months and sometimes until after the war.
They did not even have the opportunity to take along their passports, bank account booklets and insurance certificates, or bring them for safekeeping elsewhere.

Their most important belongings such as jewelry and valuable papers such as obligations and shareholders certificates were looted by the Japanese and that little that remained after the war was stolen (In Indonesian gerampokt) by the Indonesian extremists.

Then there is the mystery of the treasure of Nakamoera. (AD magazine, a reconstruction by Peter Schumacher).

Two days after the surrender of Japan, a Japanese unit, led by Captain Heroski Nakamoera, took from the pawnshop in Kramat in Batavia 5 large suitcases and several baskets filled with jewels and diamonds. These were transported to, as far as the manager of the pawnshop knows, an unknown destination.

The order for the robbery came from the Japanese Colonel Akira Nomura. He was the head of the planning office of the Japanese army. The jewelry and diamonds were taken under the pretence that they were for compensation for incurred expenses of five internment and security camps.
The suitcases and baskets were taken to the house of the Dutch mistress of Nakamoera, Carla Wolff.
The booty was divided amongst the conspirators in the house of Carla Wolff. She was allowed, with the permission Nakamoera, to keep part of it for herself. Nakamoera departed and came back several days later with 20 bars of silver and approximately 200,000 Dutch East Indies guilders. (The rate of exchange for the Dutch East Indies guilder was equal to the Dutch guilder).

The booty, except for the part that Carla Wolff kept, was transferred by a for the Japanese reliable Chinese person to another Chinese, Tio Wien Koen, for fear that it might be stolen (In Indonesian, gerampokt).
Nakamoera was arrested in February of 1946 by the British Field Security Service (FSS). After Nakamoera was interrogated, it became clear that both Nakamoera as his superior Nomura were involved in the robbery. Carla Wolff was, because she could not keep her mouth shut arrested by the NEFIS. In addition to her jewelry an amount of 370,000 Dutch East Indies guilders was seized.  Nakamoera, Nomura, the two Chinese and Carla Wolff were convicted and went to jail to sit out their sentences. The looted treasure of Nakamoera was estimated at a few million Dutch East Indies guilders. Part of the booty is, according to the newspaper "Indische Courant", probably buried somewhere in the Menteng district of Batavia (Djakarta).

An article in the AD magazine in Amsterdam gave another reading on the Nakamoera treasure.
The bulk of the treasure was smuggled by Nakamoera to Australia. Rob Nikerk, a civilian employee of the Army Technical Service (LTD) was supposed to have been the central figure in the smuggling to and the sale of the treasure in Australia.
Also a Dutch army officer, Luyke Roskott, was named as playing a key role in connection with the disappearance of the treasure and in smuggling large quantities of arms to Indonesia. A Dutch pilot of the Royal Dutch East Indies Air Force (KNILM), captain Davids, is supposed to have flown part of the booty, consisting of jewels and gold, to Serawak on North Borneo.
The disappearance of the treasure of Nakamoera has never been solved. Immediately after the period 1946/1947, all relevant documents pertaining to the investigation were destroyed.

General Spoor, who ordered an investigation, editor-in-chief J.H. Houbolt of the newspaper Bataviase Nieuwsblad, the security officer second lieutenant R.C.I. Aernout, and Mr. W.J. Haye have died under very suspicious circumstances in connection with the Nakamoera treasure. In every major city in the Dutch East Indies, and there were a few hundred, there was a pawnshop, where during and immediately after the war Dutch and Eurasian Dutch citizens pawned their possessions in order to be able to buy food.

The total amount of the lost the possessions by the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch during the war and the subsequent Bersiap period if converted to the current value of money would be more than one billion euros.

This is contrary to the findings of the Dutch committee van Galen during their investigation for the so-called “Gesture”. The committee minimized the value of the lost possessions of the Eurasian Dutch in their report.

During a round table conference in 1949 an agreement was reached with the Republic of Indonesia Serikat (RIS). The RIS was required after the transition to take over the payments in connection with losses incurred during the war. The Dutch government based the justification of this agreement on judicial decisions of the Dutch High Supreme Court in 1956 and 1958. The Dutch Supreme court stated that The Netherlands could not be held financially responsible because the judicial responsibility was transferred to Indonesia by the agreement made in 1949. The decision of the Dutch Supreme Court is questionable. Did the Court have access to the correct information on which to base their decision. A month after the agreement, the RIS stopped the payments.
It seems that the Dutch government always had the intention not to honor their financial responsibilities towards the Eurasian Dutch community. During the round table conference concerning the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia, The Netherlands apparently made a gesture to Indonesia up front by transferring 980 Dutch million guilders to Indonesia.
This amount  was paid by Japan to The Netherlands to compensate the Eurasian Dutch for the confiscation and robbery of Eurasian Dutch private assets. Some payments were made, but these were exceptions and the remainder of the above mentioned gesture apparently disappeared into  the Indonesian state treasury. Because of this, the existence of the Eurasian Dutch in Indonesia became of low priority for both The Netherlands and Indonesia during their negotiations during the round table conference. By giving the Indonesian government most of the compensation from Japan for the loss of Eurasian Dutch assets during the Second World War, The Netherlands was named the most important commercial partner of Indonesia. During the term of office of the Dutch Minister of Finance, Lieftinck, many things were possible, as long as it spared the Dutch treasury and the Dutch income tax department. The interests of the Eurasian Dutch community were of little importance.
The Dutch government wanted to rid themselves of the Eurasian Dutch. This is later ratified in the report of the Werner committee and by comments made by a member of the House of Commons, Mr. van Thiel of the Catholic Peoples Party. Mr. Verboom of the Pelita  foundation corroborated this.


After the transition to Indonesia in 1950, the Ambonese servicemen of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army refused to be demobilized in Indonesia. The Dutch government had no other choice than to bring the approximately 13,000 Ambonese servicemen and their families to The Netherlands.
When the ships arrived at the quays in The Netherlands they were immediately forcibly demobilized. This was in the eyes of the Ambonese traitorous and unfair treatment. The Ambonese form a close knit society. While serving in the Royal Dutch East Indies Army they lived with their families in army barracks. In The Netherlands, they continued to live together in army barracks. It was the only way of life they knew. The dissatisfaction, frustration and feeling of the unfair treatment resulted in the occupation of the Indonesian embassy, a school and the hijacking of a train. This took place during the administration of the social democrat Prime minister Joop den Uyl and the christen democratic minister of Justice Dries van Agt.
To confuse the hijackers of the train and the school jet fighters flew a hairs breath overhead, and  marines attacked to free the hostages.

Most hijackers were killed (murdered) or taken prisoner. There were also casualties among the hostages when the marines attacked.

All this misery could have been prevented, if the successive Dutch governments had incorporated the Ambonese as a separate military unit into the Dutch army, like the British did with the Nepalese Ghurkas and the French with the Foreign Legion.


The discriminatory findings of the Werner committee were presented to the Dutch cabinet in 1952. The advisory report contained recommendations of the committee regarding government policy towards the Eurasian Dutch. In the report a distinction was drawn between Asian oriented and European oriented Eurasian Dutch. The report stated that Asian oriented Eurasian Dutch were known for their slow work pace and would have no chance of success on the Dutch labor market. Also In other areas there would be little hope for a successful integration into the Dutch society. The expectation was that these people would end up on the bottom of the social ladder and would become involved in anti social activities. In a speech Werner stated it would be foolish to bring the Eurasian Dutch to the Netherlands. The country was overcrowded and there was neither work nor housing for them. Also The Netherlands had no financial resources to pay for such a large operation.

Mr. J. Verboom of the Pelita Foundation was of the opinion that the intention of the report of the Werner committee was to solve the problem of the former Dutch East Indies at a minimum of costs to the Dutch treasury.
As previously mentioned the Dutch government through its embassy in Indonesia continued to try to prevent the repatriation of Eurasian Dutch by all possible means, including articles in newspapers. The Eurasian Dutch were held aloof, received incorrect or no information and were being driven into the direction of the Warga Negara Indonesia (WNI) citizenship by promises that could never be met.
In 1956 Indonesia unilaterally declared the treaty between Indonesia and the Netherlands invalid and stopped all payments.
This was the signal for minister Marga Klompe to change the Dutch government policy from deterrence to active repatriation. Every Eurasian Dutch person was given a last chance to receive an advance payment for repatriation expenses to The Netherlands. The information received in Indonesia during this period about the change of Dutch policy was very scanty due to the lack of communication. Many Eurasian Dutch were through ignorance, because of social motives, disease or other causes not in a position to take advantage of this offer.
Around 6000 Eurasian Dutch had to remain in Indonesia and were forced to accept Indonesian citizenship. Under the government of President Sukarno they were forced to change their names and surnames to Indonesian names and surnames and were registered as such by the Indonesian registry offices.


In 1957 Indonesia challenged the sovereignty of Dutch New Guinea and claimed that it belonged to Indonesia. The Indonesian government issued a declaration of war with The Netherlands on the 21 of December 1957. Shortly thereafter Indonesian troops landed on the coast of south Dutch New Guinea.
Meanwhile negotiations concerning the status of Dutch New Guinea were taking place between Indonesia, The Netherlands and the U.S. The Netherlands was represented by their minister of   Foreign Affairs, Mr. Luns.

There had been a difference of opinion about the status of Dutch New Guinea since the declaration of independence by Sukarno.
According Sukarno, The Republic of Indonesia consisted of all the islands from Sabang near Singapore to Merauke on south Dutch New Guinea.
Merauke is located on the border with Australian Papua New Guinea.
The Dutch government was of the opinion that given the differences in geography, ethnology, language, culture and the customs of the Papua population, they were not related to the Indonesians, but rather to the Aborigines of Australia and the Melanesians.
Moreover, Dutch New Guinea had since 1660 a separate status within the Dutch East Indies and was ruled by the Sultanate of Tidore. This Sultanate ruled the north and west of Dutch New Guinea, which was authorized by charter by the United East Indies Company (VOC)
The U.S. Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy have tried to solve the issue of Dutch New Guinea,  without result.

Successive presidents of the U.S. did not trust the policy of the Indonesian president Sukarno. Therefore they initially supported the Dutch position. Secretary John Foster Dulles of the U.S. went, on the  insistence of the minister of foreign Mr. Luns so far, that he promised in writing on October 17, 1958, that if Dutch New Guinea would be attacked by Indonesia  the U.S. would consider this the same as an attack by China on Formosa. The Dutch government could therefore count on the support of the U.S.
However, the problems surrounding Dutch New Guinea remained. Indonesia asked the U.S. for military assistance and weapons. The U.S. was afraid that these weapons would be used for an attack on Dutch New Guinea and initially refused it.
Meanwhile, the U.S. had its hands full with maintaining a significant force in South Korea, a possible attack by China on Formosa, the beginning of American involvement in Vietnam and the cold war. The U.S. did not need an additional war over Dutch New Guinea. Indonesia then sought military assistance and weapons from the Soviet Union. Realizing the problems of the U.S., the Soviet Union tied to bring Indonesia within its sphere of influence. At the request of President Sukarno the Soviet Union supplied Indonesia with arms and financial assistance to an amount of about 900 million dollars. The Soviet Union also provided instructors to train the Indonesian army and civilian personnel.
The aid provided by the U.S. was only 21 million dollars, much less than that of the Soviet Union.
Meanwhile infiltrations by Indonesian troops on Dutch New Guinea continued.
In Indonesia itself a Dutch national, Henk van Sneevliet, founded an Indonesian communist party, the Party Komunis Indonesia (PKI). This party gained more and more influence. If the PKI party would gain power, then Indonesia would end up within the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union.
Realizing this, the U.S. supplied in 1958 General Nasution, who was western orientated, the necessary weapons to keep the existing government in power.
At the same time the U.S. revised their position on Dutch New Guinea. Secretary Dean Rusk stated unequivocally that the matter concerning Dutch New Guinea was seen by the U.S. as a part of the confrontation with communism.

After a visit by minister Subandrio to the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union supplied in 1960 approximately 20 billion dollars worth of heavy weapons. According to Prime Minister Djuanda of Indonesia the matter concerning the status of Dutch New Guinea would bring his country within the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union.

The Dutch government under Prime Minister Drees and with Mr. Luns as minister of Foreign Affairs remained steadfast on their policy concerning Dutch New Guinea.
A change in the Dutch constitution in 1956 made Dutch New Guinea part of the Kingdom of The Netherlands. Shortly thereafter, the Dutch New Guinea council was established. Amongst the future leaders were Mr. Nicholas Jaowe and Mr. Kaisjepo. 
Meanwhile Indonesia undertook desperate attempts to obtain the support of most of the third world countries at the United Nations regarding the issue of Dutch New Guinea. These attempts were unsuccessful.

Indonesia then decided to nationalize all Dutch possessions in Indonesia. There was a smear campaign against everything that was Dutch.

The Indonesian army continued to infiltrate, and used hit and run tactics on Dutch New Guinea. Three Motor Torpedo Boats (MTBs) or gun ships under the command of Commodore Sudarso were dispatched by the Indonesians to Dutch New Guinea.
Near a place called “de Vlakke Hoek” (Flat Corner) a Neptune reconnaissance aircraft of the Dutch Navy discovered the ships. Two ships of the Dutch Navy, HMS Evertsen and HMS Kortenaer intercepted the ships. The Kortenaer, which, according to navy insiders sailed on only one boiler and had a maximum speed of around 10 knots, succeeded in sinking one of the ships. The commodore commanding the ships was killed and 45 crew members were rescued from the sea. Governor General van Baal and his army and naval staff preferred to let the other two ships escape.

Later a Soviet submarine was located in the Humbold bay and / or the Jautefa bay near the capital Hollandia. Apparently the Governor General and his military staff also chose to let this submarine escape.

The president of the U.S., J.F. Kennedy decided to solve the issue of Dutch New Guinea once and for all.  A conference was held in Middleburg, a town near Washington DC. The first conference ended in a deadlock, because the delegations of The Netherlands and Indonesia could not agree on any of the issues tabled.
During the conference the Dutch government was not aware that an Indonesian army of approximately 30,000 troops were on standby for an attack on Dutch New Guinea, under the codename "Djajawidjaja". This invasion force was supported by a large Soviet fleet, including six submarines. This force was in a state of readiness on the east coast of Celebes.

The Dutch could only muster 6,000 troops, some Neptune reconnaissance aircraft, some destroyers, one or two submarines, and a cartographical vessel. Possibly some mobile police units could be used for reinforcements. The U.S. was aware of the invasion force and shadowed this constantly with U2 spy planes. The CIA obtained information that the invasion would probably take place between the second and fifteenth of August 1962. This information was passed to the Dutch government. Because of the support of the Soviet Union to Indonesia with weapons, warships and aircraft the Dutch, who would be without logistical support, would lose an armed conflict.
A second conference took place in Middleburg.  Under pressure from the U.S. the delegations reached some sort of an agreement that was detrimental to The Netherlands. The Netherlands was not going to be supported in by the U.S. in case of an armed conflict. As a matter of fact the U.S. abandoned the Dutch completely.
The aim of the Indonesian government was the annexation of Dutch New Guinea in the beginning of the sixties. Because of the promise to his people president Sukarno had to make good this promise.
The power of Sukarno was waning, and could use the annexation of Dutch New Guinea to bolster his image.
During previous infiltrations through paratrooper landings the Indonesians used, according to Subandrio, Hercules aircraft and small arms supplied by the U.S. These were provided to Indonesia under the Military Assistance Program (MAP). Whether this is true or not, I do not know.
It is possible that Indonesia wanted to prove that they were not entirely depending on Moscow.
Dean Rusk called for an investigation to try to brush up the image of the U.S. towards its NATO partners.
According to the findings of this investigation it seemed that the infiltrating Indonesian troops indeed used small arms supplied by the U.S. Civilian technical personnel were dispatched to Indonesia by the Lockheed Company to maintain the Hercules aircraft.

It is also possible that a part of the 11,000 small arms supplied by Denmark to the Indonesian police force were used during the infiltrations. A unit of the Indonesian police force, called the ABRI, had a military function and was part of in the paratrooper droppings on Dutch New Guinea. The ABRI, under command of lieutenant colonel Tjalus, was previously also involved in infiltrating tactics as part of a force of paratroopers dropped by Hercules aircraft.
The Secretary General of the United Nations, U Thant made it clear to minister Subandrio   that ultimately Dutch New Guinea had a genuine right for self-determination.
Subandrio and van Roijen reached an agreement on all major issues in a meeting on July 28, 1962.  
Dutch New Guinea would be handed over to a UN interim administration, named The United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA).
The transition of sovereignty to Indonesia was to take place after May 1, 1963.
The TNI (Indonesian) army would temporarily come under command of the UN. A plebiscite under the Papua population would have to take place ultimately in 1969. The freedom of expression for the indigenous population was to be guaranteed. The agreement regarding the transition of Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia was signed in New York on August 15, 1962, two days before the date in 1945 when Soekarno proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch government had done everything in its power to keep Dutch New Guinea for the Netherlands and to let the Papua population themselves decide for or against self-determination.

The political interests of the U.S. were focused on Asia, South and Central America and the cold war with the Soviet Union. The U.S. considered these areas more important and would not risk another war about Dutch New Guinea.

The political situation resulted around 1961 in a repatriation wave of older people, women and
children from Dutch New Guinea to The Netherlands. The men followed later. In total about 14,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch persons left for The Netherlands. (Willems / Lucassen).
These persons again lost most of their possessions. Nobody was willing to buy the possessions and properties that were left behind. The Dutch government has never compensated the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch for their lost possessions in Dutch New Guinea.
Under pressure from the U.S. and Australia, Dutch New Guinea was transferred to Indonesia in 1963. The remaining Dutch and Eurasian Dutch left for The Netherlands immediately.

An important note at the end of this chapter is that the soldiers of the Royal Dutch army who fought against the Indonesian infiltrators were bestowed with honors and decorations. The members of the Dutch New Guinea police force who operated as reconnaissance units, did all the verification work and served as guides in the bush were, with a few exceptions, totally forgotten Due to them the casualties on the Dutch side were mineralized.


Because of the forced repatriation, many persons had to cancel for them very important contracts with Dutch companies, such as the contracts with the Dutch New Guinea Import and Export Company (NIGIMY Company LTD, a subsidiary of the Hagemijer Company in Baarn, The Netherlands). This resulted in a great loss of income for the repatriates.

After their arrival in the Netherlands, they were put into contractual housing units. Families of up to five persons were housed in a room of 4 x 5 meters, and thus lacked any kind of privacy. Food was served from a communal kitchen. Their culinary habits were not taken into account, and they had to eat food that they were not accustomed to. They received a clothing allowance advance which could only be spent under the scrutiny of a civil servant from the Office of the Social Services (DMZ). There was no freedom of choice of the stores or the goods. They had to be satisfied which what was offered to them. They received pocket money once a month, under the stringent condition that 60% of this and any other income had to be paid back to the Office of the Social Services. Once private housing facilities were allocated to them they received an advance to purchase furniture.  All these advances including the cost of the journey from Dutch New Guinea to the Netherlands had to be reimbursed. Most of the money received as an advance was paid back. The Dutch government failed to realize that the repatriates were forced to come to The Netherlands due to circumstances created by the Dutch government.

Shortly after their arrival, the repatriates were psychologically tested for a job. Due to the omission by successive Dutch governments to have a qualitative related bill passed by the Dutch parliament, all the certificates and diplomas obtained in the Dutch East Indies and Dutch New Guinea and past experience were invalid. With the stroke of a pen all repatriates, including university graduates became unskilled laborers. A former Police Commissioner had to accept employment as a gasoline station attendant in the city of Utrecht because he refused to accept welfare payments from the Social Services. The less-educated persons could, for instance, only obtain jobs as apprentice welders, even though they were in possession of all the necessary welding diplomas, or few were able to become, including the author, apprentice policeman.
The repatriates were given the dirty jobs regardless of their education or training. Many of them were university graduates and Higher Technical School graduates. The repatriates were regarded as a kind of landed immigrant instead of a Dutch citizen.


There was little or no support from federal or local government agencies to assist the Eurasian Dutch repatriates to integrate in a society which was totally strange to them. The culture and habits of the Dutch people were also strange to them. They had to figure it out for themselves and above all, not to cause any problems. The result of this Dutch attitude was that the repatriates worked and studied approximately 16 hours or more a day in order to obtain a higher social position.
Many financial beneficial regulations such as the IPH, the WUBO, the WUV, the CAOR and more escaped their attention.

The repatriates were not always informed about the possibility to be able to buy into the old age pension contributions, even though many of them were civil servants. Later on, it became apparent that three possibilities had existed. Even though the repatriates worked and studied on an average of 16 hours a day in order to integrate into the Dutch society as soon as possible, they were expected to take independent action to use the opportunities presented to them under the existing laws. The hollow slogan: every Dutch person is supposed to know the law ", is obviously designed to relieve the Dutch government of its moral obligations towards its citizens!

Many repatriates saw their old age pensions reduced by ten percent or more. Due to the insufficient information provided by the Dutch government, applications for benefits for the above mentioned laws were submitted too late and therefore rejected.  Witnesses, who were necessary to corroborate the information on the application forms, were often already deceased. Moreover, local and federal government officials, through the Privacy Act, would not allow the applicant to retrieve information from the files of the whereabouts of potential witnesses. Without the consent of these potential witnesses, no information was or will be provided. Attempts to obtain information from the public archives proved futile. The civil servants employed at the archives were too busy and information requested by had PUR priority because of the agreement between the public archives and the PUR. Individual applications for information, if they were processed at all, took a minimum of a year or longer to be processed. It seemed as if the policy of the Dutch government was to deter individual applications.
The Dutch government, however, presented the repatriated Eurasian Dutch as an example of a successful integration and assimilation into the Dutch society without causing any social unrest.
The Dutch government forgot to mention that a very high price was paid by the Eurasian Dutch for this integration and assimilation!
The children of the first and second generation repatriates had an unpleasant childhood, and they were behind with their education.
The children became traumatized for the above mentioned reasons, while their parents were already severely traumatized because of what they had witnessed during the Second World War, the Bersiap period and the period thereafter. Many of them still live under constant stress; sometimes they hit the bottle, have financial problems or are for the rest of their lives permanently psychologically disabled. Due to these circumstances many parents were divorced, and as a result thereof the children were separated from each other. This is the result of the "excellent" social policy of successive Dutch governments. Up until today there has been no change in the policy towards Eurasian Dutch by the Dutch government.

In 1960, the diplomatic relations between Indonesia and The Netherlands were severed.
Due to motions tabled in and approved by the House of Commons, the Dutch government made provisions to allow the Eurasian Dutch who had to accept Indonesian citizenship for the reasons mentioned previously to repatriate to The Netherlands and regain their Dutch citizenship.


The Netherlands and Indonesia signed a treaty in 1966 to cancel all mutual claims arising from transfer of sovereignty. The treaty was signed for The Netherlands by the minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Luns.
The Netherlands received 600,000,000 guilders in phased amounts as compensation. This money was almost exclusively used as compensation for damages suffered by the Netherlands and the damage suffered by Dutch companies during the nationalization of these companies by the government of Sukarno.

The Dutch and Eurasian Dutch, who lost all their possessions and bank assets on three different occasions during the period from 1945 to 1949 in  the Dutch Indies and later in the period from 1962 to 1963 in Dutch New Guinea, never received any compensation from the Dutch government.
The Dutch government tried, as mentioned previously, to pay off their guilt with the “Gesture”. By doing this the Dutch government, in trying to compensate the Eurasian for the misery during the years from 1942 until 1967, they only ensured the increase of discontent in the Eurasian Dutch community. The Dutch government was of the opinion that the “Gesture” would end all discussion about the misery and hardship of the Eurasian Dutch forever.

Those persons that were entitled to receive the “Gesture” received an amount of 3,500 guilders. This is equivalent of giving a five cent tip after eating a five course meal amounting to 200 euros. The Eurasian Dutch rightly considered the “Gesture” as a tip. The Santi Roma gypsies, who were prepared to take to the streets to demonstrate, and the international Jewish community, who with their connections in the U.S. senate, and thus were able to threaten the existence of the American branch of the Dutch owned ABN/AMRO bank, fared much better.
The Eurasian Dutch community was much larger than the gypsy community or the Jewish community.
The Eurasian Dutch community was silenced by the statement of the former Dutch minister of Finance, Mr. Gerard Zalm, that no more funds were available for further compensation and that material losses could never be compensated with money.

The Dutch prime minister at that time, Mr. Wim Kok promised the Eurasian Dutch community that additional research would take place into what had happened in the above mentioned period. This promise was only met 2008, ostensibly because of the lack of funds. According to the government the possibility to submit individual remained. (This seemed to be a sweetener which was launched on purpose).
The Dutch government was of the opinion that the history of the Eurasian Dutch had shown that they would remain divided and that no further individual claims would be submitted.
The Dutch government in The Hague knew the impossibility for individuals to submit to governments claims for damages incurred during The Second World War. Was this done on purpose?
Article 3 of the The Hague Convention of 1907 states:
´A belligerent party which violates the provisions of the said regulations shall, if the case commands, be liable to pay compensations. It shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons of its armed forces´.
According to this article the Dutch government concluded that individual claims for mental, physical and financial damage did not have to be honored. The acknowledgment of the claims would be settled between countries via their courts and supreme courts. In all probability the interpretation of this article is debit to this. ´A country does not have to acknowledge guilt or compensate damages to individuals´.
The treaty of San Francisco of 1956 is also debit on this interpretation. An excerpt of this treaty is as follows:
´In almost all the cases presented, the right of individual victims to claim compensation from their respective countries are according to article 3 of the The Hague convention of 1907 rejected. It will still be the governments that, on a case by case basis, determine whether to do something for the individual and if, so what´
One can assume from the above mentioned treaties that individual claims pertaining to the Second World War are not realizable. Every individual government is able to decide the justification of individual claims on a case to case basis and if accepted, they also decide how to handle the claim.
In other words: Justice can only be obtained by large organizations with a common goal such as religious groups, associations and other large organizations which can apply pressure to politicians.
Together we stand and win, divided we fall and lose. Therefore: Eurasian Dutch unite!

An Indonesian attorney general, Mr. Suwadi, from Surabaya informed me that under the regime of the former president Sukarno all files pertaining to foreigners and Eurasian Dutch were collected and transported to a central location in Djakarta. They were to be destroyed to prevent the submission of claims in the future.

The Eurasian Dutch have learned that in the past the Dutch government could only be brought to reason through civil disobedience, such as riots, the blocking of roads, hijackings and threats. This can happen again.

The estimated 6,000 Eurasian Dutch, who for reasons mentioned previously were at that time not able to come to The Netherlands could not take advantage of this second possibility to come to The Netherlands, because of social, physical, emotional or financial reasons.
For many of them the amount they had to pay for crossing by ship was not attainable. In some cases The Dutch government issued a financial advance, which later had to be repaid over a period of ten years.
Due to the lack of communications within Indonesia the offer of the Dutch government unfortunately did not reach all the persons who may have been eligible. Presently, the now elderly Eurasian Dutch who remained behind in Indonesia live under very inhumane conditions.


For many Eurasian Dutch war victims, there is the General War victims Regulatory Committee (CAOR), situated in Heerlen, The Netherlands.
In order to be able to qualify for financial benefits a person had to meet certain requirements. The first one was that the person had no military background. This requirement has now been rescinded. The second requirement was and is that the person has the Dutch nationality and they cannot be over seventy years of age. The third requirement was and is that the person had suffered physically and / or mentally during the Second World War, the Bersiap period and after that up until 1954.

During the period 1972/1973 the WUV regulation came into effect. Applications for financial compensation would only be accepted if the person was interned during the Second World War in a Japanese internment camp, and the person obtained bodily injury or mental damage in or outside these internment camps during this period.  Applications from former ten year old victims during this period were constantly rejected with the argument that the incurred bodily or mental harm was not directed against them. Many of these children suffered physically and mentally. When a shelter ditch received a direct hit during a bombing raid and parts of human bodies flew all over the place, and the children in the vicinity were certainly traumatized. The author was amongst them. On a later date the regulation was adjusted. The acceptance percentage for claim applications submitted under this regulation rose to almost 100%. Approximately 50,000 persons now receive a benefit payment.
The applications by the Eurasian Dutch who for the reasons mentioned above were forced to remain in Indonesia were accepted under this regulation, but the majority did not receive benefit payments. Discrimination?
For those few who happened to receive a benefit payment, it was adjusted to the Indonesian standard of living.
These people spent time in infamous internment camps like Ambarawa and are totally traumatized. They too fought and died for the Dutch flag!

The WUBO regulation came into effect in 1984.
Applications for benefit payments are only accepted if the applicant can prove that he or she received permanently physically and / or mentally disabling injuries during the period 1942-1949. More than 60% of the WUBO applications are rejected. The number of persons that have received a benefit payment is estimated between 8,000 and 10,000. Apparently there does not exist a separate administration for the benefit payments granted under the WUV regulation and the WUBO regulation.
Applicants for benefit payments under these two regulations are confronted with a citizenship ruling and a territorial ruling. Some applicants for the WUV regulation were exempted from these rulings.

The WUBO applicants (usually the persons who had to live outside the internment camps) had it just as difficult during the period 1942-1949 as those persons who were interned. (de Jong and Bagemann). They had almost no food, were declared outlaws and received neither medical care nor medicinal aid. They were sometimes mistreated or murdered for no reason at all.
The WUV regulation and the WUBO regulation have in common that they are discriminatory regulations with regard to application procedures, exceptions and the percentage of applicants who are accepted. In addition, these regulations came into effect on different dates.
It was discovered, after enquiries by the PUR, that a person had to be interned at least 6 months in an officially registered internment camp in order to qualify as an internee.

Despite the signed treaty between EU countries, except for the United Kingdom, which makes control of social benefits payments possible (the BEU treaty), the Dutch government persists that under the WUBO regulation the approval of applications and the benefit payments are based on whether or not the applicant is living in the Netherlands. The conditions for applying under the WUBO regulation have been made more flexible since 2005.
The balancing of the government budget will have played a major role in the refusal of applications.
By now, most WUBO applicants are deceased. The few survivors are now allowed to submit their application.
The top income level is set at € 1,750,-. Apparently the PUR will only accept applications for the VUW regulation and the WUBO regulation if they do not have to do any further concessions.
For applicants who live in The Netherlands, the top income level is not valid. The European Court in Strasbourg has ruled that this restriction cannot be applied.

Information about applications for the WUV regulation and the WUBO regulation can be obtained from the PUR in Leiden, The Netherlands. Telephone number: +31. (0) 71.535.65.00. E-mail:, Internet:

The telephone and fax numbers of the CAOR regulation in Heerlen, The Netherlands is: +31. (045) .579.30.59, Fax: 00 31 (045) .579.49.04

The administration of the PUR will be transferred to the Social Insurance Bank (SVB) between 2009 and 2011. This government organization is responsible for old age pension benefit payments. The administration of the CAOR will be transferred to
the Civil Servant Pension Fund (ABP) in 2015. The office of the minister of Social Affairs will scrutinize both organizations and will hold the overall responsibility.

Applicants for the WUV regulation and the WUBO regulation expressed during interviews their concern that parts of both regulations must be regarded as unjust towards the Eurasian Dutch community.

Information retrieved from the Internet and publications by the Eurasian Dutch community are indicative that successive Dutch governments have put too much emphasis on the Eurasian Dutch who were interned in internment camps during the Second World War and thereafter. The successive Dutch governments have ignored the fact that the life for Eurasian Dutch who were not interned was just as difficult.

Many applicants for the above mentioned regulations experienced and still experience much opposition when it comes to acceptance of their applications by the EALG.

It also seems apparent that there is a form of collaboration between the PUR organization and the CAOR organization. This is regardless of the fact that both organizations use different acceptance criteria and that one organization handles the period from 1942 up until 1949 and the other the period 1949 up until 1954. Applicants who submit applications under the WUBO regulation by the PUR are requested by the CAOR not to submit applications to the CAOR until the PUR has assessed their applications. This may be more efficient, but it was never the intention of the regulations that both organizations would assess applications jointly.

Many Eurasian Dutch feel that there should be no distinction drawn between the Eurasian Dutch who were interned in Japanese internment camps and after the war, during the Bersiap period, in Indonesian internment camps and the Eurasian Dutch who were not interned.
This is reflected in the different regulations for these persons. When these regulations came into effect, they were discriminatory against each other and the applicants involved. The acceptance criteria, the number of approved applications and the exceptions to the rule are quite different. The acceptance rate under the WUV regulation was approximately 80%, while the acceptance rate under the WUBO regulation was perhaps 10%. Apparently, the PUR organization does not keep separate records for approved applications under the WUV regulation and the approved applications under the WUBO regulation. Therefore the difference is not noticeable.
The Dutch government and the Eurasian Dutch interned by the Japanese have, perhaps unwittingly, contributed to this discrimination. As far as is known the Eurasian Dutch never launched a formal appeal against this discrimination.
The former interned Eurasian claim that they were ignorant of the discrimination, while successive Dutch governments were more concerned with balancing the budget, which they still do.
Successive Dutch governments have also failed to investigate the period of the Japanese occupation sufficiently, and the period thereafter. It was convenient for successive Dutch governments to compare the war period in the Dutch East Indies with the war period in the Netherlands.
They forgot that the German occupation forces in the Netherlands were not able to intern every person. The Dutch language is similar to the German language. The Dutch and the Germans have just about the same habits and there was no distinction because of the color of their skin.
This was totally different in the Dutch East Indies. There lived in the Dutch East Indies approximately 160,000,000 Indonesians and at the most only 400,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch persons. These could easily be distinguished from the Indonesians by their language, their habits, their costumes and the color of their skin. In addition they lived, in comparison with the Indonesian population, in small groups spread across the Dutch East Indies archipelago, which consisted of about 13,500 islands, and were for the above mentioned reasons easily distinguishable by the Japanese and Indonesians and easily traceable. In the above mentioned periods the Eurasian Dutch who were not interned were also victims.
They were threatened, beaten, murdered and robbed by the Japanese and the Indonesian extremists.
It is estimated that during the Japanese occupation and the subsequent Bersiap period more NOT interned Eurasian Dutch lost their lives than the Eurasian Dutch who were in internment camps.
It is therefore regrettable that the Eurasian Dutch who lived outside the internment camps and those inside the internment camps do not have equal rights under the WUV and the WUBO regulations.
The difference in equality was partially brought into alignment through the so-called "Gesture" or "Tip. One can write a separate book about the dissatisfaction of the origin and activities of the Eurasian Dutch Platform (IP) during the regime of prime minister Lubbers. For their activities at that time there is only one appropriate phrase, shame on you.

The problems facing the WUBO regulation applicants still are:

- Their application is assessed after a few hours on the basis of their first social report, to see whether it meets the basic requirements and if they are physically and / or mentally incapacitated. If the outcome of the assessment is negative, the procedure is stopped and followed by a rejection of the application. It is possible to mount an appeal, but due to legal restrictions like the privacy law, the chances of success are very limited. Normally doctors and psychiatrists need a number of sessions in order to come to a reasonable reliable result about the physical or mental state of a person. The PUR doctors have only about 2 hours.

- Applicants must always prove that they have been in internment camps, were severely beaten or witnessed other serious calamities that made them   physically and / or mentally disabled. This is impossible sixty years later, and by the legal restrictions in force. Even inadvertently entering the wrong time on an application form can be fatal.

- During the period that Mr. Lubbers was prime minister, the possibility to apply for a claim was reduced by the Dutch government from ten to five years. It is possible that these changes of the regulations were introduced due to the trade and financial problems the company of Mr. Lubbers and his family were experiencing in the United Emirates. Even Dutch embassy personnel were recruited to solve the problems of the company of Mr. Lubbers and his family. Under the new regulations there are no exceptions to the rule for war victims.

- The Dutch governmental departments have utilized this reduction to dispose of all documents pertaining to Eurasian Dutch individuals to avoid claims. Files concerning surgical operations, the medical status of patients, etc. disappeared after the period of five years. It became just about impossible for applicants to prove the difference between the physical and / or mental illnesses they acquired from the war period and thereafter and the present were not the same.

- Due to the introduction of the privacy law, applicants were and are unable to obtain the names and addresses of potential witnesses from governmental and city records without permission of the individual in question.

- The previously mentioned agreement between the PUR and the undermanned public archives, by which the PUR applications had precedence over individual applications, caused older applicants not to apply because of the time, sometimes up to a year, they had to wait.

- The assessment of the applications was done with incomplete information from the PUR files and other incomplete information. This incomplete information included reports from Dutch Red Cross in the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands, information from the department of Social Services and reports from the U.S., Canada and Australia. covering the period 1942-1949.

- When the above mentioned regulations came into effect, no exceptions were included for the applicants who applied for war compensation payment.
A special regulation was made for the Ambonese. The Ambonese who did not meet the conditions for receiving the "Gesture" payment were to be seen in a different light and to be assessed differently. The fear of the riots and hijackings described previously and its consequences was apparently the motive for this special regulation.

The Dutch government and the PUR have failed to provide adequate information to the applicants for the WUV and the WUBO regulations. Applications for benefit payments by the WUBO were often send too late to the applicants. The Dutch government has never informed the applicants personally.

The Dutch governmental departments never took into account the totally different culture by which the older generation of the Eurasian Dutch was brought up in the Dutch East Indies. This older generation of Eurasian Dutch taught themselves to be more Dutch than the average Dutch person. This was at the expense of their own culture, customs and habits with which they brought up with from the day they were born. The Eurasian Dutch had to be modest and independent. They had to carry their own suffering and behave as docile as possible.

This generation ended up in a vacuum after their retirement. All the cropped up and repressed war traumas surfaced more strongly than ever.
This generation was never offered psychological help by the Dutch government. When their war traumas surfaced while they were working, they were sent to psychiatrists. Despite the information supplied by the patient that he suffered from war traumas he received the “here and now" treatment. Often their physical complaints were not brought into relation with their psychological complaints. If the patient requested to be treated for his war traumas they were told that, according to the present findings, they did not need a trauma treatment. The “here and now" treatment never ended.
Company doctors did not realize that their patients were treated by specialist or psychiatrist who had made a wrong analysis. Eventually the war traumatized patient ended up receiving a benefit payment under the Workman’s Compensation Benefit Act (WAO) which he or she did not want nor wanted to be in.

A recent study has shown that there is a possible connection between the physical and mental complaints from the war period. Company psychiatrists are generally focused on psychological symptoms, while it is the physical complaints from the war period that increase that make persons more traumatized. The study was made by psychiatrist Willeke van Zelst. The investigation of the complaints was based on the Longuditunal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA).
She investigated the effects of elderly traumatized persons who are reliving the past, suppress the symptoms of their agony and their actions are excessively stimulated which makes their lives much more difficult and causes much suffering.
The conclusion of the study was that if the diagnosis under Eurasian Dutch was Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS) the percentage was much higher than older persons who do not have PTSS. The PTSS visited twice as much a medical specialist, but not the psychiatrist. These elderly are sent to the wrong specialist. These are new facts.
If the applicants or patients are still bothered by many other physical and mental complaints with regard to their experiences during the war, it would be prudent to let them be examined by a medical expert to ascertain if the applicant or patient is suffering from PTSS.
It is also commonly known that persons who were interned suffer later from an eyesight deficiency. These problems began during the time they were interned. Due to circumstances beyond their control these persons never received the correct medical treatment by an ophthalmologist and only later in life they discovered that their vision was reduced to the point where they could almost see nothing. 
During the war there was an enormous shortage of certain nutrients. The famous "camp eyes" are attributed to a severe shortage of panthotene acid in the food. The loss of vision is caused by the deterioration of the central eye nerve attributed to the deficiency of panthotene acid. (Source: Aula booklet 123, written by Prof. Dr. C. den Hartog).

A major factor during the assessment of applications for benefit payments is to which generation the applicant belongs. Due to insufficient or clear information pending applications are hampered or delayed.
The demographical investigation of the Eurasian Dutch, who lived between 1930 and 2001, indicates that the following persons belong to the first generation Eurasian Dutch.
- The Eurasian Dutch who during a part or the whole of their life had gotten used to colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies and when they repatriated they brought this culture along.

- Persons who during the Second World War remained in the Dutch East Indies and had Dutch citizenship.
The research was done by the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). The researchers were: G. Beets, E. of Imhoff and C. Huisman.

Research done in the U.S. also indicates  that very young children feel the stress and traumas of their parents, which often results that at a later age the children also become traumatized. These children often saw their parents still trying to come to grips with the misery they witnessed in the Japanese and Indonesian internment camps or non-internees who had it even more difficult and were powerless to do anything about the situation they were in. The first generation Eurasian Dutch instilled upon their children the same form of discipline to which they had become brutally accustomed during the war period. The parents hoped that by installing this form of discipline their children would be safeguarded from problems in the future.
The traumas of these very young children became evident through continuous bouts of crying, excessive perspiration, frequent bed-wetting and from time to time involuntary muscular contractions. In the period shortly after the war these children were, presumably because of unfamiliarity with this phenomenon, frequently treated with soothing medicines or sleeping pills.
The consequence was that they had learning difficulties at school and at their work and the working pace was insufficient. This frequently resulted in dismissal from their place of work.

It also happened that the condition of the mind of an applicant led medical examiners to come to a faulty analysis. The former interned applicants experience these examinations for the drawing up of a report for the Pelita foundation as a form of interrogation. The applicant would, out of self defense, often remain silent in order to finish the examination as quickly as possible.
The events of the past are not discussed and noted by the examining PUR physician or by the PUR committee. The resulting report is therefore usually incomplete and the application will be rejected.
Because the PUR examination physician or the PUR analysis expert only have a limited time (about two hours) to their disposal to examine or question the applicant about his past the applicant a well documented examination or in depth analysis of the person in question is just about impossible. The applicant becomes ill at ease, and even starts to mistrust the PUR physician and the PUR analysis expert. The conclusions of the PUR physician are almost always binding. If there is a request for a second opinion then this is usually done by another PUR physician. The applicant tends to distrust the outcome of the examination and/or evaluation.
In the two-hour examination where the fate of the applicant is definitely decided. The request for a second opinion or a re-examination or re-evaluation usually results in misery and agony for the applicant.

Often the applicants are, because of their emotional and psychological condition, not able to appear in person before the PUR board for questioning. This will also affect the final evaluation result. Applicants should be informed beforehand what the contents of the questionnaire are content and what is expected of them during the application procedure. The PUR should realize that the applicants are mentally distorted patients because of their experiences during the Japanese occupation, the Bersiap period and the period thereafter.
For applicants for the WUV regulation, the WUBO regulation, the CAOR organization and other organizations and regulations, acceptance is often more important than a financial compensation. Acceptance can then finally ease and alleviate the suffering from the war years that the applicant has carried with him. The applicant can finally initiate the process of getting rid of the accumulated traumatizing anxieties.
The above mentioned is just one part of the issues that are seen by the applicants as frustrating obstacles
It is recommended that the Eurasian Dutch associations present the above mentioned problems to the Chairperson of the House of Commons and the leaders of the various political parties. It may then be possible, although it is one minute before midnight, that the acceptance regulations of the WUV and WUBO can be changed by a presentation which could lead to an accepted motion by the House of Commons and by the Senate.
It would aid the cause of the Eurasian Dutch and those who are interested in the cause of the Eurasian Dutch if they became members of an existing Eurasian Dutch organization, or establish a new Eurasian Dutch organization which can represent their interests and aid by the applications for the WUV and the WUBO regulations. If every member is prepared to pay for example € 10.- per month, then it would be possible to overcome several obstacles which could hamper the presentation of applications of the previously mentioned war compensation regulations to the European Parliament and the European court of Human Rights in Strasbourg and if necessary to initiate a court case against the Dutch government at the European Court of Justice in Luxemburg.
The Dutch government, through delaying tactics and endless bureaucratic procedures, hopes that applications for claims which are not presented in time do not have to be accepted.
Because of their cultural background, the Eurasian Dutch did not want to make use of the Social Services and their payment benefits. Despite their traumatic experiences during the Second World War and the period thereafter, they worked very hard to pick up their lives, and provide for their families. The punishment for this integration was a delay in processing their applications for the WUV and the WUBO or even total rejection.
Besides the Dutch constitution there are some international treaties which successive Dutch governments have signed, such as:

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR);
• The International Pact on Civil and Political Rights (IPBPR);
• The European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Public Freedom (ECBMOV);
• The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (HFREU).


The unveiling of the Dutch Eurasian monument took place in 1988 in The Hague.
On the15th of August 1991 a raw egg was thrown at the prime minister, Mr. Ruud Lubbers. This became known in The Netherlands as the ´raw egg incident´.
Probably out of fear that just like the Ambonese, Eurasian Dutch organizations were preparing more actions, prime minister Lubbers decided to set up an organization of Eurasian Dutch who were to discuss the problems confronting the Eurasian Dutch community. This is the previously mentioned Eurasian Dutch Platform (IP). The parties met once a month to discuss the existing problems.
The IP changed their assignment without the knowledge of the majority of the Eurasian Dutch community from a consultative role to an advisory role and later to a negotiation role to negotiate with the government about the “Gesture”.
As mentioned previously, the results were very disappointing! It estimated the number of claims that were handled came to 100,000.
According to the Central Bureau of Statistics there were approximately 145,000 claims. They forgot conveniently the approximately 6,000 Eurasian Dutch who were, as previously mentioned, forced to take out Indonesian citizenship. In addition, it was forgotten that around 1885 a large group of wealthy Chinese, Arabs and Indonesians were able to take out Dutch citizenship, which they did.
The number is estimated in the tens of thousands. Many of them also fought and died for the Dutch flag!

It is estimated that this concerns 200,000 claims. As the Dutch government is financially unable to honor these claims, it tries to let them fall by the wayside through judicial procedures. This is called politics. By changing regulations the Dutch government can absolve themselves from all moral responsibilities and obligations.

It would give the Dutch government more credibility if they gave those Eurasian Dutch who were forced to take out Indonesian citizenship an amount of a few hundred euros per family in order to let them make a fresh start.
In an article in "Halin’s Newsletter" 2004/2005 " of January 15, 2005 stood the gratifying message that after several lost court cases in The Netherlands by Halin, the board that is in charge of issuing the payments for the Gesture became convinced that a substantial amount from the budget of the Gesture, which is approximately 16 million euros, 800,000 euros would be issued in phased payments through Halin to the above mentioned persons. This money can be used by these persons for emergencies and to reimburse medical costs. (Andres)
The many e-mails from Eurasian Dutch from across the world have also led to that the board of the Gesture has made that decision.
All protests were ignored during the debates in the House of Commons over the availability of funds for the Gesture.

As mentioned previously the WUV regulation and the WUBO regulation will remain in its present form until approximately 2011. After 2011 these regulations, which are applicable to those persons who are still alive, will fall under the administration of a governmental and semi-governmental department.


The investigation by the Dutch Institute for War Documentation (NIOD), commissioned by the former minister for Health, Welfare and Sport has been completed. This has led to the following reports:
The Dutch East Indies, The Netherlands and the back pay issue 2005, by Dr. H. H. Meijer.
War damage, robbery and rehabilitation in Indonesia, 1942-1957 (May 2006), Dr. P. Keppy.

Especially the last report forms the basis for this part of the chapter in this booklet. The key question is, "has the Dutch government confiscated money belonging to Eurasian Dutch". I will refer to this report in this booklet. I will also refer to the following documents:

*  The report of The Overdue Payments in Arrears  Committee which was presented in December 1952, and which was instituted by under minister of the ministry of Foreign Affairs responsible for Union Interests and Overseas Judicial matters;
* The thesis "The Japanese occupation and its international side", 1954, University of Leiden, The Netherlands by Mr.. A. A. Zorab;

* "Feasibility study of Eurasian Dutch assets", of August 2000.
In this chapter I will only discuss the issue of Eurasian Dutch lost possessions and not on the accumulated arrears in salaries and pensions.

According to the thesis of Mr. Zorab and the NIOD report, “War Damages, theft and rehabilitation”, the properties of interned Eurasian Dutch, which included buildings, furniture, means of transportation, the contents of bank safes, (such as cash, jewelry and diamonds) and bank deposits were during the war by the Japanese systematically declared non valid, expropriated and shipped to Japan.
The properties of the Eurasian Dutch who were not interned, which also included farmlands, the contents of bank safes and bank deposits were also systematically declared non valid by the Japanese and expropriated. After the war, during the Bersiap period, the Eurasian Dutch were robbed from what remained of their rural properties and the contents of their bank safes by the Indonesians. What remained was irreparably damaged during the war time.
There was no judicial rehabilitation during the first years after the Japanese capitulated. The situation during the Bersiap period, and the Indonesian revolution which lasted from 1945 to 1949, was extremely chaotic. The development of a system for judicial rehabilitation was complex and there was not enough manpower to implement it. Even if the applicants for a claim had recovered their documents which proved their ownership of properties and other goods, and that they had been confiscated by other persons, they had to prove in court that the properties and goods were confiscated during the war years against the wishes of the owner. In any case, the majority of the war victims were not able to recover their ownership documents. The owners of the unmanaged properties and goods could not be traced because they had moved to The Netherlands or to other countries. Very many of the stolen properties and goods were lost and could not be retraced by the authorities.
The Committee of Overdue Payment Arrears stated the following about the extent of the losses incurred during the war years on page 14: "When the enemy started to bring the Eurasian Dutch women and children under in guarded neighborhoods and internment camps, they were able to finish the total confiscation of the properties and the household goods of the Eurasian Dutch population".
And on page 64: "In the opinion of the committee each member of those families were war victims who lost all their possessions. This is true for at least 95% of the Eurasian Dutch war victims. About judicially ordered reimbursements the committee states on page 14: "Apart from the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch whose houses were forcibly used by the Japanese as lodgings and found, after the liberation, their belongings more or less intact, the remainder of the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch community in the Dutch East Indies were robbed by the occupiers of all their possessions.
Dutch companies also had lost their possessions during the war, although relatively less significant than individual Dutch and Eurasian Dutch. The current value of the investments by Dutch companies in the Dutch East Indies at that time is more than 15 billion euros. Some factories and plants were damaged during the war. Products from these companies such as rubber and oil were shipped by the Japanese to Japan and the mined precious metals and diamonds were sold by the Japanese to finance their war effort. Unlike the individual war victims, these companies were still in possession of their ownership papers. Because of financial resources they were able to hire many legal experts. Their claims for financial compensation, especially by the larger companies, have been accepted by the Dutch government. I will not dwell any further on this in this booklet. This would require me to write another book.

The damage to individual properties (such as houses and household goods) during the war through bombings and subsequent fires, were never financially compensated. Even the few remaining Dutch and Eurasian Dutch, who had documents to prove the ownership of their former possessions, were not financially compensated. Other allied countries that had colonies in Asia, such as the U.S. with the Philippines, Great Britain with British Borneo and Malacca and France with Indo China, did compensate the individuals for the damages incurred to their properties and household goods during the war.

According to the chapter "War damage, theft and restoration" in the NIOD report, the decisions of the Dutch government and the House of Commons always been decisive for financial compensation and judicial rehabilitation of the Eurasian Dutch community. The interests of the Eurasian Dutch war victims were completely subservient to the national interests of the Dutch government.

The following thirteen examples show that the Dutch treasury benefited financially because of the decisions made by the Dutch government. These decisions sometimes were unjustifiable as to their legality, were often dubious, careless and never justifiable (fair and reasonable) towards the Eurasian Dutch war victims in the Dutch East Indies.

1. Irregular shipment of a consignment of silver to the Netherlands and irregular financial compensation to the Netherlands for the loss of a hospital ship belonging to the Dutch East Indies.

The citation on page 223 in "War damage, theft and rehabilitation", states that the silver bars dredged from the Bay of Tokyo, which were to be used as a refund to Indonesia, and which probably came from the war safe of the Javasche Bank, went awry. The Dutch Military Mission (NMM) shipped this consignment of silver on 3 September 1949 from Yokohama to Rotterdam. The silver remained in the Netherlands. The Dutch Ministry of Finance converted in 1951 part of the silver bars into German marks. On page 199 it states: "that the consignment consisted of 187 ton of silver, at that time valued at 17 million guilders. (The current value would be 200 million euros).
On page 229, it states that in 1978 Japan compensated The Netherlands about one million guilders for the sinking of the hospital ship ´Op ten Noord´. As is known, the Dutch government never restituted this compensation to Indonesia as had happened on previous occasions.
Under the, at that time existing laws, this was illegal because the proceeds were not used as a financial compensation for the Eurasian Dutch, nor as restitution to Indonesia. The proceeds disappeared into the Dutch treasury. It is clear that, at that time, the Dutch government confiscated funds belonging to the Eurasian Dutch. This, incidentally, is just one example of possible (no longer to ascertain) confiscated funds belonging to the Eurasian Dutch by the Dutch government.

2. The uncertainty over the destination of the gold reserves and the financial reserves of the Dutch East Indies government.

On page 36 from The Dutch East Indies, The Netherlands and the back pay issue 1945-2005, it states: 
When the threat of war became imminent, the gold reserves, the corporate deposits and private deposits, the latter consisting of 380 million guilders, of the ´Javasche Bank´ were transferred in time to Australia and the Union of South Africa for safekeeping.  The same happened with the available reserves in 1942 of the treasury of the Dutch East Indies. Assets totaling 1,214 million guilders were transferred to safety. The amount returned to the Dutch East Indies in September 1945 was 1,069 million guilders. A simple calculation shows that 1,214 guilders minus 1,069 guilders is a reduction of 145 million guilders. Taking into account the change in purchasing power of 1: 20 guilders and 1: 10 euros, the current value is around 1.5 billion euros. It is not clear what the destination of the assets were. Individuals who, after the war, went to the "Javasche bank" to claim their deposited gold received only worthless paper money in return.
The Dutch government thus had obtained funds, to which they were not entitled, the registration of the pre-war value and ownership was omitted. The Australian government and Australian banks, including the Commonwealth Bank and the Bank of New South Wales, were of the opinion that the Dutch government was not entitled to these private funds.

3. The financing of the occupation of Japan by the U.S. and the re-building of the of the Japanese economy from the proceeds of the stolen diamonds and jewelry from the Eurasian Dutch community by the |Japanese.

On page 216 of March 1949 of “War damage, theft and rehabilitation", it is stated that: "In March 1949 the Dutch government claimed all diamonds and gemstones which were robbed by the Japanese during the war from the former Dutch East Indies. The Dutch claim to the precious stones was initiated by the Dutch Banks in Indonesia who represented several hundred safety deposit box owners”.
On page 238: "Precious metals and gems were needed to cover the cost of the U.S. occupation of Japan and to rebuild the Japanese economy. In consultation with the SCAP, the Dutch government decided to sell the stolen items of the Eurasian Dutch, of whom the owners were unknown, to Japan. The SCAP was able, through the proceeds of the sale, to reduce the debt of the Dutch East Indies to the costs of the U.S. occupation forces in Japan ".

Just before the war with Japan more than 300,000 Dutch and Eurasian lived in the  Dutch East Indies, of which 142,000 were interned. For safekeeping, besides money, gold and diamonds were deposited in personal safety deposit boxes by a bank. During the war all the  contents of  these personal  safety deposit boxes were declared forfeited, confiscated or stolen by the Japanese. In 1951, the total value of the contents of these personal safety deposit boxes was estimated by the Committee on Overdue Payment Arrears to be approximately equivalent to the total value of the household goods lost by the Dutch and the Eurasian Dutch. The actual value of the household goods lost was more than 95%.

The total number of safety deposit box holders by the banks was therefore much higher than the few hundred mentioned above for claims that could be applied for to the Dutch government. There were only a few persons who as rightful owners could produce ownership documents.

The decisions made by the Dutch government at that time are dubious. Apart from the reimbursement to a few hundred safety deposit box holders, who had been interned and were still in possession of their ownership papers, the proceeds of the total claim  was used to finance the costs of the American occupation forces in Japan and the re-building of the Japanese economy.

4. Payment of the outstanding debt to Japan from the sale of Eurasian Dutch possessions.

On pages 222 and 223 of “War damage, theft and rehabilitation", we find the following citation:
In December 1949 the proceeds of restitution sales in Japan (of the goods stolen in the Dutch East Indies) had risen to 60 million guilders. A portion thereof, 47 million guilders, (current value 500 million euros) was used to cover part of the outstanding debt of the Dutch East Indies to Japan. The remaining 13 million guilders (current value is approximately 130 million Euros) became void after the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia.
The decisions made by the Dutch government at that time are also dubious, and were unfair towards the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch war victims. The Dutch government decided on the allocation of the proceeds of the sale of goods stolen by the Japanese and, which were used to cover part of the outstanding debt to Japan. It remains questionable why the Dutch East Indies had to make outstanding war payments to Japan, as the Japanese, were the ones who invaded the Dutch East Indies and were responsible for the enormous damages in the Dutch East Indies.
5. The dispensation for the Dutch treasury at the expense of the Eurasian Dutch community.
On page 222 of "War damage. theft and rehabilitation", we find an excerpt which is as follows:
The Dutch minister of Finance,  Mr. Lieftinck, added the condition that each individual restitution sale would have to be approved by him in order to assess whether the currency assets should be allocated to The Netherlands or to Indonesia. Mr. Lieftinck allocated the proceeds of the restitution sales to Indonesia in order to repay the outstanding war debt of the former Dutch East Indies to Japan. Through this financial construction Mr. Lieftinck was able to dispense paying out of the Dutch treasury and kept hereby the Dutch financial assets intact.
Through this construction the Dutch government became directly involved in the allocation of the proceeds from the restitution sales of the Eurasian Dutch community. This was done to dispense making payments from the Dutch treasury, at the expense of the Eurasian Dutch community.

6. The refusal of the Dutch government to compensate the Eurasian Dutch for material war damages.
On page 4 of “War damage, theft and rehabilitation" we find the following citation. 
The Eurasian Dutch Federation of ex Eurasian Dutch prisoners of war (NIBEG) proposed to the Dutch cabinet in June 1949 to include in the preliminary design of the “Law war material damages“ the damage incurred in Indonesia. The federation was of the opinion that the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch, who remained in Indonesia during the war, should also be included. In October 1949 the federation received the reply from minister Lieftinck. He rejected the proposal, because the proposed law on material war damages would deplete the Dutch treasury and an additional problem for the treasury from the Eurasian Dutch could have unforeseeable consequences.
The question is whether this rejection was fair towards the war victims in the Dutch East Indies. Because of the declaration of war by The Netherlands on Japan, many homes and their contents were destroyed by Japanese bombings. The argument of the depletion of the Dutch treasury was weak. The Dutch economy had always benefited from the Dutch East Indies. Indonesia paid during the years 1950 to 1957, two billion guilders to the Netherlands with respect to the mutual cancellation of debts. Moreover The Netherlands received after the war, unlike the Dutch East Indies, under the U.S. Marshall Plan 1.1 billion guilders for the re-building of its economy. Dutch citizens who during the war resided in the Netherlands and had their property and household goods destroyed or damaged. (648,000 war victims), received as compensation for material war damage a total of 6.3 billion guilders (pages 102 and 105 of the report The Dutch East Indies, The Netherlands and the pay back issue 1945-2005). That was much more than the total amount The Netherlands received under the Marshall plan. The Eurasian Dutch who had to remain in the Dutch East Indies during the war never received any compensation at all to cover their material losses, which is perceived by the Eurasian Dutch as being very unfair.

7. The gift from The Netherlands to Indonesia from the Japanese compensation for Eurasian Dutch damaged household goods.
On page 19 of ´The summing up for a feasibility study of Eurasian Dutch funds of August 2000´ the following is stated about this gift: 
The total claim of the Dutch East Indies for household goods damage towards Japan in 1948  amounted to 567 million guilders (current value around 5 billion euros). The Japanese government paid 12.5% of the claim, this amounted to 71 million guilders, (current value 700 million euros) to the Dutch government, who in turn donated it to the Indonesian government.
The small amount that Japan paid for the total claim for the damage to household goods of the Eurasian Dutch was very disappointing. In addition, the Eurasian Dutch community felt very unjustly treated when the money was transferred to Indonesia. This mistrust was partly due because the Eurasian Dutch were not assured that their rights for compensation for the stolen and damaged household goods would be honored by Indonesia after the transfer of sovereignty.

8. The allocation of the by the Japanese stolen Eurasian Dutch possessions to Indonesia.
On page 224 of ´War damage, theft and rehabilitation´, it states:
Dutch MPs of the House of Commons questioned the government in April of 1952 about the destination of Dutch portion of the Secure Fund, a fund that was managed by the U.S and the U.K., whose capital came from the proceeds of goods stolen by the Japanese and which were retrieved in Japan.
It was suggested that an amount from this fund be reserved for the Eurasian Dutch as partial compensation for the damages incurred by the Eurasian Dutch during the Japanese occupation.  The minister of Finance answered that he had no intention to change the restitution policy of the government with regard to stolen household goods of the Eurasian Dutch and allocated the funds received from Japan to Indonesia.
And on page 225: The Dutch share from the sale of diamonds stolen by the Japanese and which were recovered in Japan amounted to nearly 16.5 million U.S. dollars. The current value is around 150 million euros, and this was also, just as before given to Indonesia.
This donation of these funds to Indonesia was very questionable and unfair to the Eurasian Dutch war victims from the Dutch East Indies. It seems that two members of the House of Commons did not agree with the decision of the Dutch government. The legality of this decision could certainly have been challenged. It was not certain whether Indonesia would use these funds, forthcoming from the Eurasian Dutch possessions, to compensate the Eurasian Dutch war victims and other interested parties.

9. As a result of the Dutch military actions, there was no money available for compensation for war damages and the loss of possessions.

Because of the military actions ordered by the Dutch government from 1947 to 1949, where in each action more than 100,000 soldiers participated, the debt of the Dutch East Indies increased with 2 billion guilders. After the military actions in 1949, the total debt of the Dutch East Indies amounted to 6.5 billion guilders. Therefore the Dutch East Indies were unable to provide adequate compensation for war damages and lost possessions.

The report of the Committee Overdue Payment Arrears of 4 December 1951 states the following: During the period of the rehabilitation government, the government of the Dutch East Indies made compensation payments during the period 1946-1949, to civil servants who were interned during the war. The compensation was made in two payments (and this was final). Since the carrying out of the payments were very slow, there was by the time of the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia still a financial obligation to the civil servants in Indonesia. Only a third of these financial obligations were honored. The civil servants received far less than the amount that was determined by the Rehabilitation government. The civil servants received per family a total compensation of only five and a half months salary for loss of  their household goods for over 40 months lost income altogether. The total amount was about 57 million guilders (current value around 250 million euros), which corresponded to 2.8% of the 2 billion Dutch guilders that the Dutch East Indies paid out for rehabilitation. Unlike civil servants, compensation payments to persons who were employed in private companies were carried out a lot quicker. Eventually the private companies who could afford it made a compensation payment on the average of eight months salary per family for the loss of their household goods and the of 40 months lost income. The total amount was about 40 million guilders. The current value is approximately 200 million euros.

10. The impossibility to obtain from the Indonesian government legal rehabilitation and financial compensation.

With the transfer of sovereignty in 1949, all rights and obligations, including those of Dutch and Eurasian Dutch war victims, were transferred to Indonesia. The Indonesian government was now responsible for the legal rights of Eurasian Dutch citizens, who were considered foreigners by the Indonesians.

On page 194 of “War damage, theft and rehabilitation" it is stated:
The continuation of the legal rehabilitation by an independent Indonesia was not included as an agenda issue for the transition. The agenda for the round table conference consisted of large economic issues and major financial problems. The legal rehabilitation of Eurasian Dutch citizens still in Indonesia had no priority by participating delegations.
On page 234 it states: "Because compensation payments for the war victims were not legally incorporated in the transition document, the Indonesian government had no obligations to honor these compensation payments and was able to reject all applications".

The Dutch government failed to include and defend the interests of the Eurasian Dutch war victims and the victims of the Bersiap period at the round table conference in preparation for the transfer of sovereignty.  As there was no arrangement made for the possibility of legal rehabilitation at the time of the transfer to Indonesia the existing policy of rejecting applications for incurred war damages continued.  Representatives of the war victims were not heard nor consulted. The performance of the Dutch government and the House of Commons was to say a least very questionable. The delegates received no instructions prior to the negotiations, there was no intervention or corrective measures taken. Given the recent experiences they should have known that Indonesia would not honor any rights of most Eurasian Dutch persons.
After the transfer of sovereignty the Eurasian Dutch could count on no or very little sympathy for their submitted claims. Indonesia was a damaged country after the war and after the military actions by the Dutch. Many Indonesians also saw The Netherlands as a colonial occupier who had profited for a long time from the Indonesian natural resources. Indonesia has also almost never honored the claims submitted by Eurasian Dutch persons (only if there were a great deal of documents containing evidence at hand). The Eurasian Dutch war victims have never benefited from the restitution monies paid The Netherlands to Indonesia for the household goods stolen by the Japanese from the Eurasian Dutch.

With the transfer of their obligations to Indonesia, the Dutch government was able to free itself of the commitment to accept claims of the Eurasian Dutch war victims. Such as salaries in arrears, claims submitted for Japanese restitution monies and for the compensation of rejected restitution claims. This was a financially profitable for the Dutch treasury, but it was detrimental to the Eurasian Dutch war victims.

11. The discrimination of Eurasian Dutch war victims with respect to shareholders of Dutch companies and the Dutch Income Tax Department.

It states in the “Groene Amsterdammer" of January 5, 2000 the following:
At the round table conference, The Netherlands was able to obtain the status of most favored trading partner of Indonesia. It meant that revenues of approximately three billion guilders (current value 30 billion euros) were kept safe for the Dutch private investors and that they could be transferred to The Netherlands at an attractive exchange rate. These agreements were drawn up in a financial economic regulation: the "Finec".
In contrast to the rights of individual war victims who were not included in the treaty of the round table conference, Dutch companies were included. Until 1956 the Dutch shareholders of companies like "Royal Dutch Shell", "Billiton", banks and agricultural companies were able to transfer their profits to The Netherlands. In 1956 Indonesia declared the treaty unilateral void. The Dutch Income Tax Department also benefited from these transfers of profit.
12. How it became impossible to obtain legal rehabilitation from Japan.

On page 218 of "War damage, theft and rehabilitation", it states:
"The peace treaty between the allied countries and Japan signed in San Francisco in 1951, made it definitely impossible to submit restitution claims for amongst others, confiscated possessions from bank deposit boxes, and on former Japanese bank branches". Restitution claims for household goods stolen in the Dutch East Indies by the Japanese were no longer accepted or dealt with".

This was very detrimental to the Dutch Eurasian community. Even with proof of ownership, it was impossible to obtain compensation for household goods declared forfeited or stolen by the Japanese, after the treaty of 195. By signing the treaty, the Dutch government made it impossible to obtain legal rehabilitation from the Japanese. The Dutch government did not take over the responsibility of legal compensation. The Dutch government also did not compensate the Eurasian Dutch for the expiration of the possibility of submitting a claim to the Japanese government for compensation. This was in financial terms beneficial for the Dutch treasury, but again was detrimental for the Eurasian Dutch war victims were not consulted by the Dutch government or delegation prior to the conference in San Francisco.

13. The possibility of claiming compensation from Japan for damages suffered during the war.
The peace treaty with Japan in 1951 was followed in 1956 by the bilateral Yoshisa / Stikker treaty between The Netherlands and Japan. This treaty meant that all individual and collective civilian claims for war damage to Japan became permanently inadmissible. In the Yoshida / Stikker treaty, The Netherlands agreed that the Japanese would pay a  small compensation for immaterial damages (mental cruelty) for Eurasian Dutch persons who had been interned for 40 months or more. This compensation amounted to about 264 guilders per person. (current value around 800 euros). For prisoner of war and civilian interned persons 436 guilders (current value around 1,300 euros). This fee enabled Japan to exonerate itself from further compensation for material damage to Indian Dutch to Dutch war victims.
Representatives of the Eurasian Dutch war victims were never invited by the Dutch government to preliminary discussions for both treaties. The House of Commons was never informed nor consulted on these important treaties and the consequent implications for the Dutch and the Eurasian Dutch war victims. By signing both treaties the Dutch government made it impossible to submit claims to Japan for war damages. The Dutch government never gave compensation to the Eurasian Dutch for this. This was in financial terms beneficially for the Dutch treasury, but very detrimental to the Eurasian Dutch community. They had to pay the bill.

Ad finitum:
From the above mentioned facts it is clear that not only The Netherlands, but also Japan and Indonesia are in possession of Eurasian Dutch money. This was caused by the ambiguous policies of the Dutch government.
Before and during the transfer of sovereignty, the Dutch government had the intention to keep as many as possible Eurasian Dutch in Indonesia. The Dutch embassy tried to hamper the repatriation of the Eurasian Dutch to the Netherlands. A campaign was initiated with promises to the Eurasian Dutch, which the Dutch government would never be able to keep, to induce them to choose for Indonesian citizenship.
In 1952, as mentioned previously, the Werner committee presented its racial discriminating  findings. In its final report, the committee made a distinction between eastern orientated Eurasian Dutch and western orientated Eurasian Dutch. In the report the eastern orientated Eurasian Dutch were relegated to a lower form of society, who because of their mentality and habits would never be able to function in a Dutch society, and would eventually end up in the lowest regions of the Dutch society.
The exodus of Eurasian Dutch to The Netherlands and Dutch New Guinea began in 1950. The repatriates were Eurasian Dutch citizens, that remained of a total of 400,000 persons after their internment in Indonesian camps. Of the 400,000 persons some died, others were tortured and most were robbed of all their remaining possessions by Indonesian extremists. The last interned prisoners became free in March 1947.
The Dutch government should have realized that the Eurasian Dutch never had the intention of staying in Indonesia. The transfer of responsibility to Indonesia for reimbursement for war damages of the Eurasian Dutch, which incidentally came from Eurasian Dutch private funds, was therefore a transparent trick by the Dutch government to protect her own economy. This indicates that the decisions in 1956 and 1958 of the Dutch High Court were based on manipulated and dishonest information.
Only in 1957 came an end to the frustrating attempts of the Eurasian Dutch to repatriate to The Netherlands. The board of the Pelita foundation stated that the behavior of the Dutch government was an attempt to rid themselves of the Eurasian Dutch at the lowest cost possible. Minister Marga Klompé changed government policy and made it possible for the Eurasian Dutch, with a financial advance payment, to repatriate to The Netherlands. It is worthwhile mentioning that the incorporation of the first repatriates was paid from the profits of Eurasian Dutch entrepreneurs from the Dutch East Indies. As previously mentioned, Governor General van Mook arranged for the transfer of 12,000,000 guilders (current value estimated at some hundreds of millions of euros).
The Eurasian Dutch repatriates paid all the advance payments back to the Dutch government. The Eurasian Dutch, whose life and health could not be guaranteed by the Dutch government, are the only repatriates who eventually EVER paid for their own repatriating costs.
As mentioned previously, the war damage funds forthcoming from the confiscation and theft of Eurasian Dutch assets, were given at the transfer of sovereignty partially to Indonesia. The present value is estimated at least 500,000,00 Euros. These funds are, with some exceptions, used by the Indonesian government for their own benefit.
The Eurasian Dutch community came to dismal discoveries after fifty years about information which have been kept from them under the Official Secrets Act .
All of the previously committed acts and atrocities are according to the Civil Codebook exonerated.
Maybe it will be possible to try via the War Legal Code, which has a different exoneration period, to try to obtain a revision for the above mentioned facts, which are connected with the Second World War, supported by the Dutch constitution and the European Union treaties signed by the various Dutch governments.
As mentioned previously not only The Netherlands, but also Japan and Indonesia are in possession of Eurasian Dutch money. The causes of this are the dubious policies and activities of successive Dutch governments.

The equity of the Dutch East Indies was transferred to The Netherlands. The proceeds from the sale of individual assets stolen by Japan were beneficiary to the Dutch treasury, Japan and Indonesia.

The private pre-war assets of the approximately 350,000 Dutch and Eurasian Dutch citizens in the Dutch East Indies has a current value of around 20 billion euros or an average of 57,000 euros per person. The Eurasian Dutch have during the Japanese occupation and the consequent Bersiap the period have, because of expropriation, confiscation and theft, lost assets and possessions which now would be worth at least 15 billion euros, which is approximately 75% of the assets and possessions. This amounts to an average of approximately 40,000 Euros per person.

This indicates that of the private possessions of Dutch and Eurasian Dutch citizens from the former Dutch East Indies, assets and equity with a value at least 1,7 billion euros went to the Dutch treasury, 500 million euros to Japan and 980 million euros to Indonesia. This is equivalent to a value of at least 3 billion euros. The remainder of the material losses with a value of 12 billion euros, ended up in Japan and by individual Indonesian persons.

It will never be possible to find out what happened to the lost private property and goods from individual Eurasian Dutch persons.  Some agricultural land and houses are registered in old local registries and can be traced. The problem is that if one is not an Indonesian citizen one cannot possess property in Indonesia. Even if it were possible to transfer properties to a Limited Liability Company or Private Company registered in Indonesia, the costs involved would be exorbitantly high.
A certainty is that very many of the goods and bank deposits stolen by the Japanese cannot be traced and recovered.
That Japan paid far too little for the assets, including household goods and bank deposit boxes, which were recovered by the allies. This benefited the Dutch treasury, Japan and Indonesia. Almost all the assets stolen by the Indonesians were never traced and recovered.
The distressing fact is that much of the Eurasian Dutch assets and capital was used for the reconstruction of the Japanese economy.

The Eurasian Dutch and the war victims are the only persons who have not been able to benefit from the assets and capital of the Dutch East Indies. Almost all of them lost all their possessions. Only a few, if they were able to provide verified proof of ownership, were able to recover their possessions.

Virtually nothing has been done about the legal rehabilitation of the Eurasian Dutch community. The Eurasian Dutch war victims are waiting for this for over sixty years. It is high time that the Dutch government soon openly admits that there were major shortcomings and errors committed in the jurisdictional sentencing, parliamentary laws and regulations and the treaties signed by the Dutch government, concerning the legal interest of the Eurasian Dutch war victims.
The legal rehabilitation by means of compensation for material and immaterial damages suffered by the Eurasian Dutch war victims has supposedly been forgotten or kept concealed.
About 1947/1948 money cleansing took place in the Dutch East Indies. The currency bills had to be cut in two halves. The part containing the image had a value of 50%. The other part could be brought to a bank and changed for a government receipt for the other 50%. When the financial situation of the government had improved, this receipt could then be converted at a bank into cash. Apparently, the Dutch government has conveniently forgotten about this. This conversion has NOW, sixty years later still not taken place. The money cleansing took place in the Dutch East Indies, but the policy pertaining to the money cleansing was, just like all previous financial decisions, made by the Dutch government in The Hague.

After the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia the repatriates from Dutch New Guinea were apparently totally forgotten. They also lost all their possessions and good incomes and especially their respect. As already mentioned previously all their certificates and diplomas were invalid. The Dutch government also forgets that these people have done everything for The Netherlands and because of this have suffered many hardships.
The Eurasian Dutch have brought a backward "bush" country into the twentieth century.
Their personal losses were never compensated. Upon arrival in The Netherlands their dignity was violated by not recognizing their certificates and diplomas and were treated the same as unskilled laborers. It is time that they receive appropriate compensation. The patience of the Eurasian Dutch who were also faithful to The Netherlands can also come to an end!

As previously mentioned, the Dutch government feels that it is not obliged to assume responsibility for the consequences of the Second World War and the following Bersiap period. The Dutch government was and is of the opinion that the Dutch East Indies had obtained since 1920 an autonomic status and its own government.
The Dutch government ordered the government of the Dutch East Indies to declare war on Japan.
All decisions made after the war about arrangements with respect to incurred damage and associated claims were handled, discussed and decided upon by Dutch ministers. The large number of people who were not interned was conveniently forgotten!
These decisions were a result from agreements reached in the House of Commons and the Senate of the Estates General.
The Eurasian Dutch community in the Dutch East Indies had no say nor was in any way involved or consulted in reaching these decisions.
All results of the outcome of these decisions with respect to legal rehabilitation, damage claims and other claims are, according to the Eurasian Dutch community, the responsibility of the Dutch government.
The Eurasian Dutch who repatriated to the Netherlands are the only group of persons who later repaid the most part of the repatriation costs and other financial advances to the Netherlands. The care and housing in The Netherlands around 1950 was completely paid for from profits of Dutch companies in the Dutch East Indies. Governor General Mook ensured that these profits, concerning millions of guilders at that time, were transferred to The Netherlands.
On November the 12th, 2008, the under minister from the Ministry of Housing, Benevolence and Sport held a meeting in which she would disclose and discuss the plans concerning the finalization of the regulations concerning the Second World War. The only Eurasian Dutch organization present was the Eurasian Dutch Platform. Later, other Eurasian Dutch organizations, expressed their disappointment and dismay about the omission of other organizations at this meeting to the chairman of the House of Commons and the party leaders of the parties in the coalition government. Accordingly to the promises made previously by the respective Dutch governments, and especially the above mentioned Ministry, the Dutch Institute for War Documentation had already been assigned to investigate the extend of war damages, etc. in the Former Dutch East Indies caused by the  Second World War with Japan. The investigations were finalized  in 2005 and 2006 by the previously mentioned researchers Dr. Meijer, Dr. Keppy and Mr. Zorab. These investigations have cost the Dutch taxpayers millions of euros. The minister and under minister responsible for the investigation refused to present the results in the meeting of November 12th, 2008 to the individual parties in the House of commons. Protests from the floor were answered with ´find out for yourselves´. Nobody knows what happened after this.
That during a period of recession less financial means are available can, in spite of the outcry by the previous minister of finance, Mr. Zalm, be understood.
That the above mentioned results, which are very important for the Eurasian Dutch and cost the Dutch taxpayers millions of euros, are not discussed in the Cabinet is a bloody shame!
Once again it shows that the Dutch government is trying to back out of the previously made agreements pertaining to the result of the so called “Gesture”.
It is normal that the above mentioned results are presented to the Cabinet and chosen representatives so negotiations can take place over back payment of losses incurred by the Eurasian Dutch. Even though we are in a recession period, the government is considering back payments to former members of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army who reside in South Africa and maybe Surinam.
The Netherlands have in the past become wealthy partly due to financial gains from income from the former Dutch East Indies. Monetary income or gold and silver amongst others which shortly before the outbreak of World War Two were transported to safety to Australia and South Africa, and later shipped to The Netherlands. The legality of this was doubted by amongst others the Australian government, The Commonwealth Bank and the Bank of New South Wales, because their position was that the monies, gold and silver, etc., belonged to the Dutch and Eurasian Dutch living in the Dutch East Indies. It was they who deposited their assets in banks situated in the Dutch East Indies.
As mentioned previously the US, Great Britain, France and Australia, which all possessed colonies in Asia, DID compensate their citizens for the war damage incurred with payments ranging from 10,000 dollars to 30,000 dollars.
The Eurasian Dutch community cannot comprehend the attitude of the Dutch government. The reports and conclusions presented by the NIOD, of which the contents were the result of investigations done by independent researchers with no connections with the Dutch government or the Eurasian Dutch Platform, should according to the Eurasian Dutch community by democratic means  made public so the people can assess and state their conclusions!
This undemocratic way of governing has left deep wounds in the hearts of the members of the Eurasian Dutch community. According to the  chairman of the Eurasian Dutch Platform the conduct of the Dutch government can only be described as: too late, not finished, denial and unwillingness.
Other Eurasian Dutch associations which includes the Costa Blanca Eurasian Dutch Interest Association have added to the above:
discrimination of Eurasian Dutch citizens with respect to Dutch citizens.
The Dutch citizens received compensations amounting to more than 6.3 billion guilders for private damages incurred during the Second World War. The successive Dutch governments have acted like Santa Claus irregardless of the misery of the Eurasian Dutch. Billions of Euros went to the treasuries of Indonesia, the US and the Dutch government itself. Even the former enemy Japan has benefited from Eurasian Dutch money to rebuild their economy!
The Dutch way of thinking is that everything is possible for the Eurasian Dutch as long as the Dutch treasury and tax department are spared.
The Eurasian Dutch had, when presenting applications for claim recognition by the WUV, WUBO, etc. to present proof of everything as if they had committed fraudulent acts. This all happened in a period when the Dutch government archives were incomplete, a privacy law came into being and a law which changed the possibility for the claimants from 10 to 5 years. There were no exceptional conditions for war victims incorporated in the above mentioned laws. In the meantime the Dutch government sprinkles with monies belonging to war victims. The conclusion is:
Eurasian Dutch still do not count!
As a matter of fact, it is of no importance if during this recession period the deficit of the Dutch government increases by one or two billion euros. The compensations paid to the Eurasian Dutch will return in ´NO TIME´ via various purchases  to the Dutch treasury. Maybe the Dutch government can in consultation with the European Union decrease their yearly contribution with one or two billion euros for one year in order to finally compensate their own Eurasian Dutch. Because of the conduct of the Dutch government, the Eurasian Dutch feel that they are equal to foreign imported laborers, and who are discriminated.
This is possibly a good reason to present our case to the European Court in Luxemburg and/or the European Parliament in Strasburg.
The bubble will, even by the obedient Eurasian Dutch who also fought for The Netherlands, become bigger and finally burst, possibly as a gigantic explosion.
All the information in this booklet was based on information and data from public archives, and excerpts from newspapers such as De Telegraaf, AD magazine, the Bataviase Courant and others. Also through interviews with individuals who experienced the Second World War, the Bersiap period, and Dutch New Guinea including the Indonesian infiltrations. Conversations have also taken place with an attorney general in Soerabaya and a colonel of the Indonesian ABRI, who were involved in various infiltrations, and interviews were held with generals residing in Indonesia.
Also included are consultations of the studies of Dr.H.H. Meijer from 2005, Dr. P. Keppy from 2006 and the thesis of Mr. Zorab.


Our parents and we have fought wars to retain the Dutch East Indies. Now our parents and a large part of the first generation mostly belong to "the people who passed away". It is important that our descendants know the history of the Eurasian Dutch and pass it on to the next generation.

Every one of us had during the Second World War and during the subsequent period up to the transfer of Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia in 1963 experienced very impressive events that are deeply etched in our memories.

I hope that the contents of this book can in a bird's eye view relate what each of us has experienced.
By reading and understanding the contents of this booklet we may be able to understand each other's suffering and behavior, which may make the war traumas more bearable.
The contents of this booklet may be able to offer answers to questions of our children and grandchildren, and more understanding of our background and our past. Hopefully they will then understand why we often refrained from giving them our love, warmth and parental happiness.
Upon our arrival in The Netherlands, we often had to work double the normal daily working hours in order to obtain the necessary qualifications to provide ourselves a place within the social structure in our new homeland, and to build up a decent life. We did this so that future generations will be able to enjoy a good life. Now that we, the elders, have closed the gap it will be up to our descendants to show that the Eurasian Dutch can function at any level in society.

Rob Dias

ABP Organization for the pensions of civil servants.
ABRI Ankatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia. A semi military Indonesian police force.
AD A  Dutch national newspaper. Algemeen Dagblad.
AOW The Dutch Old age pension plan.
BAMBOE-ROETJING A large bamboo pole that is used as a spear.
BERSIAP  An Indonesian word which means ready for action.
CAOR A central administration for the war victims of the Dutch East Indies and Indonesia.
CBS The Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics.
CIA Central Intelligence Agency.
DETA Economic and Technical Assistance Service.
DMZ The Dutch Social Security Service.
E.U. European Union.
FSS The British Field Security Service.
HALIN A foundation which concerns itself to aid and inform Eurasian Dutch still residing in Indonesia   
IHC Eurasian Dutch remembrance center.
IP Eurasian Dutch Platform, a communicative organization for Eurasian Dutch.
JES An aid organization for women of all ages who were raped by the Japanese.
KEMPETAI The Japanese Military Police (an organization similar to the German Gestapo).
KNIL Royal Dutch East Indies Army.
KPM Royal Dutch packaging shipping line.
LASA Longuditunal Aging Study Amsterdam.
LTD Army technical service.
MAP Military Assistance Program.
MTB Motor Torpedo Boat in the English navy or Patrol Torpedo Boat in the American Navy.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NEFIS Netherlands Forces Intelligence Services.
NIGIMY Dutch East Indies Import and Export Company.
NIOD The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.
PELO-POR Corruption of the Dutch word ´voorloper´ meaning scout or tree finder.
PKI Party Komunis Indonesia, the Indonesian communist party.
POW Prisoner of war.
PTSS Post Traumatic Stress Symptom.
PTT Postal, Telegraph and Telephone Service.
PUR An organization for payments of Pensions and Benefits.
RI Republik Indonesia.
RIS Republik Indonesia Serikat.
U.S.  United States of America.
UIG An organization for outstanding back payment to Eurasian Dutch.
UN United Nations.
UNTEA United Nations Temporary Authority.
VOC The Dutch East Indies Company.
WAO The Dutch Workman Compensation Law.
WNI Warganegara Indonesia, meaning an Indonesian citizen.
WUBO A regulation for non interned war victims.
WUV A regulation for interned war victims.
WVO-er Dutch War Volunteer for fighting in the Dutch East Indies